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Red River Basin - human activities and climate change

Training course program Part 1&2

03/11/2016 09:49

APN Conference - Training course: 14th -17th November 2016
Training course program Part I :
On calculation of carbon emissionat the air – river water interface
15th November 2016
Training course program Part II :
On Seneque-Riverstrahler model
16th November 2016

APN Conference - Training course: 14th -17th November 2016
Training course program Part I :
On calculation of carbon emissionat the air – river water interface
15th November 2016
 
  1. Background and objectives
Riverine carbon fluxes and emission (or outgassing or evasion) are an important part of carbon exchange between terrestrial, oceanic and atmospheric environment. Rivers and streams not only transfer various forms of carbon (dissolved and particular) to oceans, but also evade a significant amount of carbon to atmosphere and thus must be considered in strategies to mitigate climate change (Battin et al. 2009; Richey et al. 2002). Current estimate suggested that inland water bodies transport, mineralize and bury 2.7 PgC.yr-1 which is similar to the terrestrial carbon sink for anthropogenic emissions of 2.8 PgC.yr-1 (Tranvik et al. 2009). However, there is limited understanding of recent spatial and temporal dynamics of carbon exchange between terrestrial, oceanic and atmospheric environment for the large Asian rivers.
In Asian region, the river water discharge and sediment loads have been altered dramatically over the past decades as a result of reservoir impoundment, land use, population, and climate changes (Walling & Fang, 2003; Lu et al., 2004). Solid sediment loads not only directly contribute organic carbon, but also affect chemical weathering and hence carbon consumption and possible carbon emission. Therefore, a study of sediment fluxes and associated particulate and dissolved carbon, and carbon emission from large Asian rivers is crucial to quantify geochemical cycles accurately in the context of global change studies. Quantifying riverine carbon fluxes to oceans and carbon emission to air from typical large Asian rivers has never been attempted.
Carbon fluxes and emission of the river are impacted by both natural (plate margin tectonics, volcanic deposits, high elevations, steep slopes, and high intensive rainfall…) and anthropogenic factors (high population density, deforestation, reservoir impoundment, intensive agricultures, and urbanization).
A one-daytraining with carbon emission will aim to provide for participants who are young scientists from Asian countries:
+) a  review about the recent understandings of carbon emission from the world rivers: source, sinks, factors impacted
+) how to calculate or to measure carbon emission from the river air-water interface?
  1. Agenda of the day
9h-10h30: Prof Lu XiXi
  • Review of carbon emission from the world rivers: source, sinks, factors impacted
10h30-10h45: Coffee break
10h45 -12h15:Dr Cyril Marchand
Measurement and calculation of CO2 fluxes  at the air  - water surface  by different methods: eitherusing a floatingchamber connected to an IRGA, or determining pCO2 within the water columnusing an equilibrator
12h15-13h30:   Lunch
13h30-14h30 : Dr Liu Shaoda
  • Calculations of CO2 flux  at the air  - water surface by CO2_SYS software
  • Case study of CO2 outgassingfromlow-gradient large Yangtzerivers
14h30-15h30: Dr. CuongTu Ho
  • Application of R software in the analysis of data
15h30-15h45 : Coffee break
15h45 -17h0: Prof Lu XiXi, Dr Cyril Marchandand, Dr. CuongTu Ho
  • Discussion
  • Informal report by the participants
 
  1. Prerequisite
 
  • Laptop should be available during the training day.
  • A video projector will be required during the whole day. Awifi connection should be available.
  • English langue will be used during the training course.
 
 
  1. References  to be provided to the participants
 
  1. Battin TJ, S Luyssaert, L A. Kaplan, A K. Aufdenkampe, A Richter and L J. Tranvik. 2009. The boundlesscarbon cycle. Nature Geoscience 2, 598-600.
  2. Borges, A. V., S. Djenidi, G. Lacroix, J. Theate, B. Delille, and M. Frankignoulle, Atmospheric CO2 flux from mangrove surrounding waters, Geophys.Res. Lett.,30(11), 1558, doi:10.1029/2003GL017143, 2003
  3. Cai, W.J., Guo, X., Chen, C-T. A., Dai, M., Zhang, L., Zhai, W., Lohrenz, S., Yin, K., Harrison, P., Wang, Y. 2008. A comparative overview of weatheringintensity and HCO3- flux in the world’s major riverswithemphasis on the Changjiang, Huanghe, Zhujiang (Pearl) and Mississippi Rivers. Continental ShelfResearch 28, 1538-1549.
  4. Denfeld B.A,K E. Frey,WV. Sobczak,P J. Mann& Robert M. Holmes. 2013. Summer CO2evasion from streams and rivers in the Kolyma River basin, north-east Siberia.Polar Research,32, 19704,  http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/polar.v32i0.19704
  5. Frankignoulle  M, Borges A and R Biondo.  2001.  A new design of equilibrator to monitoring carbondioxide in highlydynamic and turbidenvironments.  Wat. Res. Vol. 35,  No. 5, pp. 1344–1347
  6. Kempe, S. (1984), Sinks of the anthropogenicallyenhancedcarbon cycle in surface fresh waters, J. Geophys. Res., 89(ND3), 4657–4676, doi:10.1029/JD089iD03p04657.
  7. Lauerwald R, GG. Laruelle, J Hartmann, P. Ciais, P. A.G. Regnier. 2015. Spatial patterns in CO2 evasion from the global river network. Global biogeochemical cycles. Vol 29(5): 534–554,  DOI: 10.1002/2014GB00494
  8. Raymond A.P,  J Hartmann, R Lauerwald, S Sobek,  C McDonald, M Hoover, D Butman, R Striegl,  E Mayorga,  C Humborg,  P Kortelainen, H Durr,  M Meybeck, P Ciais,  P Guth. 2013. Global carbondioxideemissionsfrominland waters.  Nature 503, 355 – 359. doi:10.1038/nature12760.
  9. Raymond PA and Cole JJ. 2001. Gas exchange in rivers and estuaries : choosing a gastransfervelocity. Estuaries. Vol 24(2) : 312-317.
  10. Regnier P et al. 2013. Anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon fluxes from land to ocean. NATURE GEOSCIENCE. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1830
  11. Richey JE., Melack JM., Aufdenkampe AK., Ballester VM. & Hess LL. 2002. OutgassingfromAmazonianrivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature416(6881), 617–620.doi:10.1038/416617a
  12. Striegl R G., M. M. Dornblaser, C. P. McDonald, J. R. Rover, and E. G. Stets.  2012.  Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system. Global biogeochemical cycles. Vol 26, GB0E05, doi:10.1029/2012GB004306, 2012
  13. Tranvik LJ., Downing JA., Cotner JB., Loiselle SA., Striegl RG., Ballatore TJ., Dillon P., Finlay K., Fortino K., Knoll LB., Kortelainen PL., et al. 2009. Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carboncycling and climate. Limnol. Oceanogr., 54(6, part 2):  2298–2314
  14. Wang FS, Wang FC, Zhang J, Hu H, Wei XG. 2007. Human impact on the historical change of CO2 degassing flux in River Changjiang. Chemical Transactions. Doi:10.1186/1467-4866-8-7.

 
 
Training course program Part II :
On Seneque-Riverstrahler model
16th November 2016
 
  1. Background and objectives :
A one-day training with the Seneque-Riverstrahler model will aim at synthetizing the work realized on the Red River upstream basin and the Day River on the right side of the delta. The several applications of the model concern the biogeochemical functioning of the drainage network in terms of sources and fate of (i) N, P, Si and their potential role for eutrophication and (ii) fecal contamination and organic carbon. The model was implemented in parallel to field and experimental studies for short periodduring the duration of 3 Ph-D thesis (2003-2004: Le TPQ, 2005; 2006-2008: LuuTNM.; 2010; 2013-2014: Nguyen TMH, 2016). In addition, long term reconstruction, back the 1960’s, has been realized with the model on the basis of existing data (Le et al, 2014) and scenarios for the future explored. 
During this training the data gathered separately from these previous studies will be mobilized together. 
  1. Agenda of the day
9h-10h30: the basics of the Seneque-Riverstrahler model
  • Gilles Billen : General principles of the model, Hydro-morphological constraints,  point and diffuse inputs
  • Josette Garnier: Kinetics of ecological processes taken into account
  • Sylvain Thery: Structure of georeferenced data bases used in theSeneque software
10h30 -1045h: Coffee break
10h45-12h00
  • Running the model  on the upstream Red River Basin
  • Simulations and observations comparisons
  • Flux calculations (N, P, Si, C)
12h00-13h30 Lunch
13h30-15h30
  • Running the model  on the Day River chaining the result of the runs of the upstream basin
  • Simulations and observations comparisons
  • Flux calculations (N, P, Si, C)
15h30 -16h45: Coffee break
16h45-17h30
  • Scenarios construction
  • Informal report by the participants
 
  1. Prerequisite
 
  • Besides the Parisian Team (Gilles Billen, Théry Sylvain and Josette Garnier), the Vietnamese team (Quynh Le, Minh Luu and Huong Nguyen) will supervise the training course.
  • The Vietnamese teams will provide a list of participants (a maximum of 12 people).
  • One laptop computer for 2 people should be available during the training day, and made available one day before (to be precised)  for the model and data bases installation. Laptops will have to run Windows (from Windows XP to Windows 10) and dispose of a virtualization software (VMWare, to be confirmed): the Seneque software and datasets will be launched via the virtual machine. A spreadsheet software (MS Office or LibreOffice) must be installed to deal with results files and calculate fluxes.
  • A video projector will be required during the whole day. Awifi connection should be available.
  • English langue will be used during the training course.
 
 
  1. References  to be provided to the participants
 
On the Red River basin
Le Thi Phuong Q. , Billen G., Garnier J., Théry S., Fézard C. & Chau Van M. (2005). Nutrient (N, P) budgets for the Red River basin (Vietnam and China). Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB2022, doi:10.1029/2004GB002405.
Le Thi Phuong Q., Garnier J., Billen G. Théry S. & Chau Van M. (2007). Hydrological regime and suspended load of the Red River system (Vietnam): observation and modelling.  J. Hydrol. 334, 199– 214
Le T.P.Q., Billen G, Garnier J.,Théry S., Ruelland D., Nguyem X.A. & Chau V.M. (2010) Modelling nutrient transfer in the sub-tropical Red River system (China and Vietnam): implementation of the Seneque/Riverstrahler model. J. Asian Earth Sciences. 37 : 259–274
Le TPQ, Billen G., Garnier J. (2014). Long-term evolution of the biogeochemical functioning of the Red River (Vietnam): past and present situations. REC. DOI 10.1007/s10113-014-0646-4
Luu T.N.M.,Garnier J., Billen G., Orange D., Némery J., Le T. P.Q.,Le L A (2010). Hydrological regime and water budget of the Red River Delta (Northern Vietnam). J. Asian Earth Sciences. 37: 219–228
Luu T.N.M., Garnier J., Billen G., Le T. P.Q., Némery J., Orange D., Le L. A. (2012). N, P, Si budgets for the Red River Delta (Northern Vietnam). Biogeochemistry, 107:241–259.DOI 10.1007/s10533-010-9549-8
Nguyen, H. T. M. et al. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and
die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. Sci. Rep. 6, 21644; doi: 10.1038/srep21644 (2016).
 
Background references
Billen G., Garnier J. &Hanset Ph. (1994). Modelling phytoplankton development in whole drainage networks: the RIVERSTRAHLER model applied to the Seine river system. Hydrobiologia, 289:119-137.
Billen G., Garnier J. (1999). Nitrogen transfers through the Seine drainage network: a budget based on the application of the Riverstrahler model. Hydrobiologia, 410: 139-150.
Billen G., Garnier J., Ficht A., Cun C. (2001). Modelling the response of water quality in the Seine Estuary to human activity in its watershed over the last 50 years. Estuaries, 24(6) : 977-993.
Billen G., Garnier J., Ficht A. &Cun C. (2001). Modelling the response of water quality in the Seine Estuary to human activity in its watershed over the last 50 years. Estuaries, 24(6) : 977-993.
Billen, G., Garnier, J., Némery, J., M. Sebilo, A. Sferratore S. Barles, P. Benoit & M. Benoit (2007) Nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum:  mechanisms and long term trends. The Science of the Total Environment, 375:  80–97. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.005
Billen, G., Garnier, J. (2007). River basin nutrient delivery to the coastal sea: assessing its potential to sustain new production of non siliceous algae. Mar. Chem, 106: 148-160. doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2006.12.017
Garnier J., Billen G., Coste M. (1995). Seasonnal succession of diatoms and Chlorophyceae in the drainage network of the river Seine: Observations and modelling. Limnol.Oceanogr. 40: 750-765.
Garnier J., Billen G., Hannon E., Fonbonne S., Videnina Y., Soulie M. (2002).Modeling transfer and retention of nutrients in the drainage network of the Danube River. Estuar.Coast. Shelf Sci., 54: 285-308.
Garnier J., Némery J., Billen G.&Théry S. (2005). Nutrient dynamics and control of eutrophication in the Marne River system: modelling the role of exchangeable phosphorus. J. Hydrol. 304: 397-412.
Garnier, J. & G. Billen (2007). Production vs. Respiration in river systems: an indicator of a "good ecological status" evaluation. The Science of the Total Environment, 375 :110–124
Lancelot C., Gypens N., Billen G., Garnier J. &Roubeix V. (2007). Linking marine eutrophication to land use: an integrated river-ocean mathematical tool: The Southern Bight of the North Sea over the past 50 years. Journal of Marine Systems 64 (2007) 216–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.03.010).
Passy, P., Gypens, N., Billen. G., Garnier, J., Lancelot, C., Thieu, V., Rousseau V., Callens, J. (2013). A Model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984. J. Mar. System. 128: 106–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.05.005
Passy, P., Le Gendre, R., Garnier, J., Cugier, P., Callens, J., Paris, F., Billen, G., Riou, P., Romero, E., 2016.Eutrophication modelling chain for improved management strategies to prevent algal blooms in the Seine Bight. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps11533.
Ruelland, D., Billen, G., Brunstein, D. & Garnier, J. (2007). SENEQUE 3: a GIS interface to the RIVERSTRAHLER model of the biogeochemical functioning of river systems. The Science of the Total Environment, 375: 257-273
Thieu V., Billen G., Garnier J. (2009). Nutrient transfer in three contrasting NW European watersheds: the Seine, Somme, and Scheldt Rivers. A comparative application of the Seneque/Riverstrahler model, Water Research, 43(6):1740- 1754
Thieu V., Garnier J., G. Billen (2010). Assessing impact of nutrients mitigation measure along rivers continuum to southern bight of the North Sea. Science of the Total Environment, 408:1245–1255.
 

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