04.37916621
  • APN
  • INPC
  • DMHCC
  • IET
  • UPMC
  • NUS
  • Yunnan
  • IRD
Red River Basin - human activities and climate change

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS

03/11/2016 09:45

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS
CARBON EMISSION AND TRANSFERS IN RIVER SYSTEM: IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES

 
In the framework of the Research Project “Carbon fluxes and emission from the Red River (Vietnam and China): impact of climate change and human activities”, funded by the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research APN
 
 
 
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS
CARBON EMISSION AND TRANSFERS IN RIVER SYSTEM: IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hanoi,  14th  – 17th  November 2016
 

 

 

 

This workshop is funded by the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research  (APN)

 
 
Venue
INSTITUTE OF NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY
VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Conference room, 2nd floor, 1H building, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay,
Hanoi – VIETNAM
 
 
 
ORGANISATION COMMITTEE
No Title and Name Address
1 Prof. Dr PHAM Quoc Long INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
Director of INPC
2 Dr LE Thi Phuong Quynh INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
3 Ass Prof Dr LE Minh Ha INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
4 Dr NGUYEN Thi Mai Huong INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
5 MSc NGUYEN Bich Thuy INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
6 BSc NGUYEN Thi Bich Ngoc INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam

TENTATIVE PROGRAM
Time Activities
PART 1: SCIENCETIFIC CONFFERENCE
Carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activities
 
Monday 14th November, 2016
8h30’ - 9h00’ Reception
9h00 - 9h10’ Opening and welcome speech
Prof Dr. Quoc Long PHAM
Director of INPC, VAST, VIETNAM
9h10’ -  9h30’ Dr Thi Phuong Quynh LE
Institute of Natural Products Chemistry (INPC, VAST), VIETNAM
Introduction of working program
Some notes for the ARCP2014_03CMY_Quynh project
9h30’ -  9h50’ Group Photo
Coffee break
9h50’ -  10h00’ Prof XiXi LU
National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
Carbon outgassing from large Asian rivers: an overview
10h00’ – 10h20’ Dr  Thi Mai Huong NGUYEN
Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, (INPC), VAST, VIETNAM
Organic carbon in the Red River, Vietnam: measurement and modelling.
10h20’ – 10h40’ Dr Nufang FANG
Institute of soil and water conservation, CHINA
Effects of erosion process on micro-aggregate associated organic carbon dynamics in a small catchment of the Loess Plateau
10h40’ – 11h00’ Dr Kaidao FU
Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, CHINA
Carbon emission and transfers in regulated river system: monitoring case from the Longkaikou Reservoir, Upper Yangtze River
11h00’ – 11h20’ Dr Julien NEMERY/ PhD student Tuyet NGUYEN
University Grenoble Alpes, FRANCE/Asian Center of Water Research (CARE).
C, N and P dynamics within the Saigon River – Can Gio Mangrove:  Impact of Ho Chi Minh Megacity.
11h20’ – 11h40’ Dr Tu Cuong HO/ Dr Thi Phuong Quynh LE
Institute of Environmental Technology, (IET, VAST), VIETNAM / Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, (INPC), VAST, VIETNAM
Relationship of bio-physico-chemical variables on the calculated flux of CO2 in different seasons at five sites along the Red River system
11h40’ – 12h00’ Dr Thanh Dong NGUYEN
Institute of Environmental Technology, (IET, VAST), VIETNAM
Overview of analysis of  chlorinated pesticides in polluted sites
12h00’ – 13h30’ Lunch time
13h30’ -  13h50’ Dr Gilles BILLEN
CNRS, University of Pierre and Marie Curie, UPMC, FRANCE
The GRAFS/SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER modelling suite: a tool for studying C, N & P transfers along the land  sea continuum of large watersheds.
13h50’  - 14h10’ Dr Josette GARNIER
CNRS, University of Pierre and Marie Curie, UPMC, FRANCE
The aquatic continuum of the Seine river:  source or sink of CO2 for the atmosphere?
14h10’ – 14h30’ Dr Cyril MARCHAND
IRD, FRANCE
Observatory of the evolution of mangrove with climate changes with a focus on their ability to fix and store carbon.
14h30’ – 14h50’ PhD student Thi Hien HA/Ass.Prof Kim Cuc NGUYEN
Water Resources University, VIETNAM
Belowground carbon sequestration in planted mangroves in Xuan Thuy National Park, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam
14h50’ – 15h10’ Coffee break
15h10’ – 15h30’ Dr  Thi Diem Phuong PHAM
Ho Chi Minh University of Natural Resources and Environment, VIETNAM
Water quality monitoring for aquaculture in An Giang province. 
15h30’ – 15h50’ Dr Thi Thuy DUONG / PhD student Thu Hang HOANG
Institute of Environmental Technology, (IET, VAST), VIETNAM
Seasonal variation of water quality and plankton community in the Red river system
15h50’ – 16h10’ Dr Xuan Hien NGUYEN
Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Climate Change, Hanoi, VIETNAM
Estimating sea level rise for Hong – Thai Binh delta coastal areas
16h10’ – 16h30’ Dr Quang Dung BACH
Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Climate Change, Hanoi, VIETNAM
Assessment of the training program on climate change and green growth
16h30’ – 16h50’ Dr Paul PASSY
National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
What changes in the land to sea continuum of the South Asian Sea?
16h50’ -  17h00’ Discussion general
Future cooperation on new project?
Tuesday  15 th November  2016 
PART 2: TRAINING COURSE (day 1)
Carbon emission and transfer from river system: observation and modelling
Day 1: Measurement and calculation of carbon emission from river system
8h30 – 9h00 Reception
9h00’ – 10h 30’ Prof. Dr XiXi LU
National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
Review of carbon emission from the world rivers: source, sinks, factors impacted
10h30’ – 10h40’ Coffee break
10h40’ – 12h00’ Dr Cyril MARCHAND
IRD, FRANCE
Measurement and calculation of CO2  outgassing fluxes  at the river air  - water surface  by different methods
12h00’ - 13h30’ Lunch time
13h30’ - 14h45’ Mr Shaoda LIU
National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
- Calculations of  pCO2 by CO2_SYS software and CO2 flux  at the air  - water surface
- Case study of CO2 outgassing from low-gradient large Yangtze rivers
14h45’ – 15h00’ Coffee break
15h00’ – 16h45’ Dr Tu Cuong HO
Institute of Environmental Technology (IET, VAST), VIETNAM
Application of  R software in the analysis of data
16h45’ – 17h00’ Discussion
Wednesday  16 th November 2016 
PART 2: TRAINING COURSE (day 2)
Carbon emission and transfer from river system: observation and modelling
Day 2: Modelling carbon transfers and emission from river system: application of the  Seneque Riverstrahler model,
Dr Gilles BILLEN/ Dr Josette GARNIER/ Mr Sylvain THERY, CNRS, University of  Pierre  and  Marie Curie, UPMC, FRANCE
NB: A computer for two participants is at least a necessary, for which the owner must be the administrator of it for installing the model and related data bases.
9h00’ -  10h30’ - General principles of the model, Hydro-morphological constraints,  point and diffuse inputs - Kinetics of ecological processes taken into account
- Structure of georeferenced data bases used in the Seneque software
10h30’ – 10h40’ Coffee break
10h40’ - 12h00’ - Creating sub-basin unit for a watershed  description
- Decomposition of discharge under base flow and surface flow
- Running the model  on the upstream Red River Basin
- Simulations and observations : comparisons
- Flux calculations (N, P, Si, C)
12h00’ - 13h30’ Lunch time
13h30’ -  15h00’ - Running the model  on the Day River chaining the result of the runs of the upstream basin
- Simulations and observations : comparisons
- Flux calculations (N, P, Si, C)  
15h00’ - 15h10’ Coffee break
15h10’ - 17h00’ - Scenarios construction
- Informal report by the participants
PART 3: EXCURSION  - DISSCUSIONS
Thursday 17th November 2016  
7h00’  -  18h00’
 
Visiting Trang An (Scenic Landscape Complex)
at Ninh Binh province 
(reserved for the participants of the APN project and invited scientists)
Discussion about the possible cooperation on new project

CONTENTS
No Title Page
1 Prof Dr Pham Quoc Long, INPC, Vietnam
Opening and welcome speech
14
2 Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong,  Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Bich Thuy,  and Pham Quoc Long
Carbon fluxes and emission of the Red River system: impact of human activities and climate change. Some notes for the present research project
16
3 Lu Xi Xi, Ran Lishan, Yang XK and Liu Shaoda
Carbon outgassing from large Asian rivers: an overview
22
4 Liu Shaoda and Lu  Xi Xi
Hydrological and geomorphological control on CO2 outgassing from low-gradient large rivers in the Yangtze River system
24
5 Wang Yixia and Fang Nufang
Effects of erosion process on micro-aggregate associated organic carbon dynamics in a small catchment of the Loess Plateau.
26
6 Fu Kaidao, Yang Wenhui, Lin Lin and Lu Xixi
Carbon emission and transfers in regulated river system: monitoring case from the Longkaikou Reservoir, Upper Yangtze River.
28
7 Billen Gilles,  Garnier Josette and Théry Sylvain
The GRAFS / SENEQUE - RIVERSTRAHLER modelling suite: a tool for studying C, N & P transfers along the land sea continuum of large watersheds.
30
8 Marescaux Audrey, Thieu Vincent, Borges Alberto, Billen Gilles and Garnier Josette.
The aquatic continuum of the Seine river: source or sink of CO2 for the atmosphere?
32
9 Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Rochelle-Newall Emma, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette and Billen Gilles
Organic carbon in the Red River, Vietnam: measurement and modelling.
35
10 Ho Tu Cuong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Marchand Cyril Vu Duy An, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen  Bich Thuy, Dang Quang Le, Duong Thi Thuy and Nguyen Trung Kien
Relationship of bio-physico-chemical variables on the calculated flux of CO2 in different seasons at five sites along the Red River system
37
11 Dao Viet Nga, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Emma Rochelle- Newall and Nguyen Thi Mai Huong,
Longterm variation (1980 – 2014) of the riverine carbon flux of the Red River system (Vietnam).
39
12 Tran Thi Bao Ngoc, Hoang Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Trung Kien, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Lu XiXi, Duong Thi Thuy
Seasonal variation of water quality and plankton community in the Red river system
41
13 Nguyen T. N Tuyet, Nemery Julien, Gratiot Nicolas, Strady Emilie, Nguyen T Phong, Aime Joanne and Nguyen T An
C, N and P dynamics within the Saigon River – Can Gio Mangrove: Impact of Ho Chi Minh Megacity.
43
14 Pham Tuan Linh, Nguyen Thi Thao, Nguyen Viet Hoang and Nguyen Thanh Dong
Overview of analysis of chlorinated pesticides in polluted sites
45
15 Marchand Cyril
Observatory of the evolution of mangrove with climate changes with a focus on their ability to fix and store carbon.
47
16 Ha Thi Hien  and Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc
Belowground carbon sequestration in planted mangroves in Xuan Thuy National Park, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam
49
17 Pham Thi Diem Phuong,  Nguyen Thi Ngoc Ly and Dang Viet Cuong
Water quality monitoring for aquaculture in An Giang province.  
51
18 Bach Quang Dung
Assessment of the training program on climate change and green growth
52
19 Nguyen  Xuan Hien
Estimating sea level rise for Hong – Thai Binh delta coastal areas
53
20 Passy Paul, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles, Lu Xixi and Liu Shaoda
What changes in the land to sea continuum of the South Asian Sea?
54
21 Tran Thi Tuyen, Luong Thi Thanh Vinh
Applications IDW model in gis to forecast the quality of air enviroment in Vinh city, Nghe An province
55
22 Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huyen Trang, Tran Hoang Quyen, Pham Thuy Trang
LCA: GHG blance of cassava-based ethanol production in Vietnam
56
  List of participants 57
 
OPENING AND WELCOME SPEECH
Prof. Dr Quoc Long PHAM
Director of the INPC
Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology,  1H building, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, VIETNAM
 
Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is a great honor and pleasure for me to act on behalf of the Institute of Natural Products Chemistry. First of all, I would like to convey my warmest regards and best wishes to all of you and welcome to all of you for joining the workshop “Carbon emission and transfers in river system: impact of climate change and human activities” .  This workshop is in the framework of the research project which is funded by the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN). We highly appreciate the financial support of the APN for this project!
We are very pleased to welcome all scientists from France, Singapore, China and Vietnam to the workshop. I hope that this workshop provides us a good opportunity to learn together, to foster cooperation, to interchange ideas, and to build capacity for any upcoming challenges. I wish that every one of you would find the workshop inspirational and rewarding. And I truly think that your presences and your valuable ideas during the workshop will helpfully contribute to the carry-out of the present research project.
Finally, this is an opportunity for me to declare the official opening of this workshop and I wish all fruitful four days of interesting and beneficial program.
For the foreign participants, I truly hope that you have a pleasant stays in Hanoi.
Thank you and I warmly welcome you again.
 
 
 

SOME NOTES FOR THE RESEARCH PROJECT
ARCP2014_03CMY_QUYNH
 CARBON FLUXES AND EMISSION FROM THE RED RIVER SYSTEM (VIETNAM AND CHINA): IMPACT OF  CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Thi Phuong Quynh LE1*, Josette GARNIER3, Gilles BILLEN3, XiXi LU2, Thi Thuy DUONG4, Cuong Tu HO4, Cyril MARCHAND6, Quoc Long PHAM1, Thi Mai Huong NGUYEN1, Thi Bich Ngoc NGUYEN1, Bich Thuy NGUYEN1, Duy An VU1, Duc Nghia LE1, Thi Bich Nga TRAN5, and  Yue ZHOU7
1: Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2: National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117570, SINGAPORE.
3: UMR Sisyphe 7619, Pierre and Marie Curie University, 4th floor, Tour 56, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris 75005, FRANCE
4: Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, VIETNAM
5: Department of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment, 8 Phao Dai Lang, Dong Da District, Hanoi, VIETNAM
6: IRD, UMR211-BIOEMCO, University Paris 6, Paris 75005, FRANCE
7: Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, 237 Longquan Road, Kunming 650221, CHINA
Email: quynhltp@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The Red River (RR) (Vietnam and China) is a good example of a South-East Asian river system, strongly affected by climate and human activities. This project aims to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon fluxes and emission (outgassing or evasion) from the Red River system and to evaluate their responses to variations in sediment loads and other environmental changes such as land use, intensive agricultural practice, reservoir construction and population in its basin. The full project has been run for the period from August 2012 - November 2016, which is funded by the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) under different Project Reference Numbers of:  ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh (the first year project);  ARCP2013-06CMY-Quynh (the second year project) and ARCP2014-03CMY-Quynh (the third year project).  Some major activities and results of the three years of project have been done as followings:
1. Research activities 
Collecting dataset : The long-term discrete existing data (since the 1960s) of the Red River, including water quality, land use, population, agricultural and industrial development, hydrological management, and meteorological data have been collected from different sources, such as previous scientific research project, data published in the national books, reports or data from different official agencies … The data collection are used for estimation/calculation of carbon emission and flux from the Red River by both methods     ii) estimation from field measurement; i) modeling validation for describing the carbon transfer and carbon emission under the pressure of human activities and natural conditions in the Red River basin in the past, present and perspective scenarios; 
Field measurement and laboratory analysis
Monthly field campaigns and laboratory analysis have been organized from August 2012 to December 2014 to complete the water quality of the Red River and agricultural and industrial wastewater (Figure 1).
                  
                                                                   Figure 1: In-situ measurement and laboratory analysis
Measurement of carbon exchange: 24h cycling of measurements at five sites selected from the RR upstream to downstream were done in wet and dry seasons in 2014, by different methods: calculation of CO2 fluxes either using a floating chamber connected to an IRGA, or determining pCO2 within the water column using an equilibrator or calculated using total alkalinity and pH values (Figure 2). The results showed that the Red River riverine water pCO2 was supersaturated with CO2 in contrast to the atmospheric equilibrium (400 µatm), averaging about 1590 µatm, thus resulting in a water–air CO2 fluxes of 28.6 mmol m-2day-1. CO2 outgassing rate from the river water surface was characterized by significant spatial and seasonal variations, being the highest downstream Hoa Binh dam and in Hanoi and being the highest in the dry season probably as a result lower temperature and rainfalls.
 
                 
                                                        Figure 2: Measurement of carbon exchange at the water-air interface
Modelling carbon transfer and emission from the Red River
The model RIVERSTRAHLER/SENEQUE is used to investigate the dynamics and seasonal distribution of organic carbon (OC) in the river. The modelling results of OC concentrations show an acceptable agreement with those directly measured. The model results reflect the importance of land use, discharge and the dominance of non-point sources over point sources in this network. The model also allows determining the net ecosystem metabolism in terms of OC respiration over the whole delta. It is found that the OC inputs to the Red River and the resulting heterotrophic respiration of this OC resulted in a system that was a strong CO2 source.
Publication: The project results have been published in different peer-reviewed international and national scientific journals. Participation in different international workshops (in Vietnam, in China and in France) has been done by different project participants.
2. Other activities
Organizing international workshops: in the framework of the present project, 03 workshops have been organized in Hanoi, Vietnam.  More than 40 project scientists (in each workshop) from four main research teams, invited scientists and observers from different countries such as France, Singapore, China and Vietnam, have attended the workshop. They all represented a large panel of disciplines, including Chemistry, Biology, Biogeochemistry, agronomists, GIS- experts, etc..
Scientific Exchange:  The project allows new cooperation with international projects such as the NUCOWS (funded by USTH-Vietnam), the EFESE (funded by IRD, France), the NAFOSTED (funded by the MOST-Vietnam), providing the chance for enlarging a scientific exchange network
Website construction: The Red River website is opened as a forum for information exchange and researches relating to the Red River basin. The website is set-up with the support of the APN project and could open to the public some selected datasets (water quality, meteorology … ) obtained during the researches as well as the model tools and /or model results for water management purposes for the interested researchers, including young scientists and students.  The website includes several windows such as the background, information, objectives of the project, activities, images, publications relating to the projects, data portal for registered users, contact and links for the partners who joined and funded the projects. We also try to update all possible information relating to the Red River basin in terms of research and management. With the website, researchers, concerned people and decision-maker can be brought together for the animation of an interactive and visible tool on the whole Red River basin.
Training
PhD students: A sandwich thesis, under the training cooperation between the University of Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris, France) and the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST, Vietnam) (2013 –2015) is financially supported by the IRD French Institution. The thesis topic is the behavior of Coliforms in relationship with organic dissolved and particulate carbon fluxes, and aims to quantify the proportion of carbon issued from domestic waste water compared to the one issued from erosion and soils leaching in the Red River basin, including inorganic, organic and gazeous. The thesis was successfully defended in March 2016 at the University of Paris VI, France. Cooperating with a NAFOSTED project, another PhD student has been working on the impact of human activities on phytoplankton community of the Red River system at the IET, VAST.
Master students: The project supports for two Master students from University USTH who work on the topic of measurement of carbon exchange at the water-air interface of the Red River and longterm carbon transfer in the whole Red River system. These two Master students successfully defended their thesis at USTH in September 2015.
Undergraduate students: From 2012, about 18 undergraduate students from the Hanoi University of Natural Resources And Environment (HUNRE), Thanh Tay University, Thanh Do University, University of Electric Power and University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (USTH) realize their bachelor thesis at INPC and IET with scientific topics related to this ARCP project.
Training course:  A short training course for modeling utilization and for measurement and calculation of carbon emission flux for Vietnamese, Chinese, and Singapore young scientists is organized following or preceding the workshop in November 2016. This training course lasts 2 days, of which one day for measurement and calculation of carbon emission flux and one day for modeling utilization. About 20 participants from different institutes and universities are funded for this training course.
Keywords    carbon fluxes, carbon emission, modeling, Red River



CARBON OUTGASSING FROM LARGE ASIAN RIVERS: AN OVERVIEW
XiXi LU1*, Lishan RAN2,  XK YANG1 and Shaoda LIU1
1: Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, SINGAPORE.
2: Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong, CHINA
Email:     geoluxx@nus.edu.sg   
ABSTRACT
Large Asian rivers from the Himalayas and Tibet Plateau were important rivers in geological history in terms of chemical weathering (via carbon consumption due to tectonic forcing) (Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992) and carbon burial (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997). However, the information about carbon outgassing as part of riverine carbon cycles and fluxes is very limited for these large river systems. In recent years we conducted actual field measurement in a few sites in the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins. Some of our preliminary results will be reported. 
In addition, we also employed the historical water chemistry data to estimate pCO2 and carbon outgassing across the three large Asian rivers basins (Yellow River, Yangtze River and Mekong River). Our preliminary estimates indicate that carbon outgassing from these large Asian rivers were low, compared to the large river systems in South and North Americas. For example, the total outgassing was around 5-8 MT C/year from the Mekong River (its total size around 0.75 million km2) (Li et al., 2013), comparable to another estimate (Ellis et al., 2012), and 5-7 MT C/year from the Huanghe (Yellow River) (total size around 0.75 million km2) (Ran et al., 2015). The carbon outgassing in unit area (tones/km2 catchment area) for the 2 rivers is much lower than the Amazon River (500 MT C/year, river basin around 6 million km2) (Richey et al., 2002).
The lower carbon outgassing could be due to underestimate of the Gas Transfer Velocity (k) or lower pCO2 values. Lower pCO2 values are possibly due to a few reasons—poor vegetation cover in general and forest cover in particular (thus lower NPP), poorer soils with low organic matters, limited size of wetlands due to paddy field cultivation, limited  floodplains and its disconnection with rivers due to embankments construction, among other reasons.  If it is true that these large Asian rivers have lower carbon outgassing than their counterparts in America or Europe, current report of global carbon outgassing from fresh waterbodies (e.g. Raymond et al., 2013) could be overestimated.
Keywords   Carbon outgassing (emission), pCO2, Gas Transfer Velocity, Large Asian river
 
 
 
HYDROLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CONTROL ON CO2 OUTGASSING FROM LOW-GRADIENT LARGE RIVERS IN THE YANGTZE RIVER SYSTEM
Shaoda LIU1* and Xi Xi LU1
Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, AS2, 1 Arts Link, Kent Ridge 117570, SINGAPORE.
E-mail:  lsdeel@gmail.com; geoluxx@nus.edu.sg
ABSTRACT
Although CO2 emission from river surfaces is largely a hydrology-mediated phenomenon, the hydrological impact on riverine CO2 emission is rarely characterized in previous studies. Relying on daily hydrology and monthly-resolved partial pressure of water dissolved CO2 (pCO2), this study characterizes the influence of spatiotemporal hydraulic variability on CO2 emission from confined low-gradient rivers of the Yangtze. Results indicate that unit-width-discharge (Q/w) explains well along-mainstem, inter-tributary and intra-annual (monthly) variations of key hydraulic characteristics (e.g., current velocity and water depth). CO2 flux normalized to unit water surface area (FCO2) varies closely with channel hydraulics (especially current velocity), which explains 48.9–67.9% and 68.9–72% of the spatial and temporal FCO2 variations, respectively, larger than the parts explained by pCO2 (32.1–51.1% and 24.0–31.1%).  Despite high sensitivity of FCO2 to river hydraulics, CO2 flux normalized to unit channel length (FlCO2) depends primarily on channel discharge, which determines ultimately the amount of CO2 exported from the catchment and emitted to the atmosphere, regardless of the complex interplays among channel hydraulic characteristics. Limited variances under different k600-v parameterizations indicate reliability of the major conclusions in this paper.
Keywords: hydrology, geomorphology, river hydraulics, river CO2 emission, large rivers
 


EFFECTS OF EROSION PROCESS ON MICROAGGREGATE ASSOCIATED ORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS IN A SMALL CATCHMENT OF THE LOESS PLATEAU, CHINA
Yixia WANG 1 and  Nufang FANG1*
1 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, CHINA
E-mail:  fnf@ms.iswc.ac.cn (N.F. Fang)
ABSTRACT
Soil erosion has significant impacts on terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics. It disturbs C- rich topsoil and deposits it in lower sites and subsequently, C- poor deeper horizons will be exposed through different erosion process. However, the knowledge on the mechanisms of microaggregate associated soil organic carbon (SOC) mobilization and deposition by soil erosion at catchment scale is still not clear. The main objective of this study was to illustrate the effects of different erosion process on the distribution and deposition of microaggregate associated SOC dynamics. Based on a 11.3 m sediment deposit profile, the rainfall event data of the catchment and K-means clustering approach, a total of 75 flood couplets were collected from the check dam in Nianyangou catchment, and then were classified into three Couplet Types. In each flood couplet, the soil organic carbon concentration (SOCc) and amount (SOCa) in microaggregate fractions (250-50, 50-20 and <20 μm) were qualified. The following results were found:
(1) Sediments with fine microaggregate fractions (Couplet Type I) were abundant in SOC mainly in the low-intensity rainfall event conditions while sediments with coarse  microaggregate fractions (Couplet Type III) had a higher SOCc mainly in the high-intensity rainfall event conditions.        
 (2) Couplet Type I was composed of 7 couplets with 14.3 t eroded SOC. Couplet Type II was composed of 20 couplets with 28.2 t eroded SOC while Couplet Type III was composed of 48 couplets with 130.1 t eroded SOC.
 (3) The sediments in Couplet Type I may most likely correlate to sheet and interill erosion and that in Couplet Type III may correlate to rill and gully erosion. The dominant erosion processes were rill and gully erosion in the intensively cultivated catchment. Our study facilitates to understand the microaggregate associated SOC dynamics affected by soil erosion at catchment scale and further illustrate the carbon sequestration mechanism in the check dams on the Loess Plateau area.
Keywords:  check dam, sediment, soil erosion, microaggregate, organic carbon
  


CARBON EMISSION AND TRANSFERS IN REGULATED RIVER SYSTEM: MONITORING CASE FROM THE LONGKAIKOU RESERVOIR, UPPER YANGTZE RIVER
Kaidao FU1*, Wenhui YANG1, Lin LIN2 and Xixi LU2
1 Institute of International Rivers and Eco-security, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091,  CHINA
2 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 119260, SINGAPORE
E-mail:  kdfu@ynu.edu.cn   
ABSTRACT
China's hydropower industry is rapidly developing with its growing demand for energy. However, reservoirs are carbon sources or sinks, which is a hot issue in the academic world within recent decades. China's southwest region is positioned as a hydropower energy base, so it is of great scientific and practical significance to conduct such research in this area. In this paper, we measured the CO2 emission flux on air-water interface and related the flux to in-situ environmental factors.
Our results show that, firstly, the Longkaikou reservoir area are the source of CO2 in the whole year, and the average CO2 emission flux is 631.82 mg•m-2•d-1. Secondly, at the temporal and spatial scale, CO2 emission flux in rainy season is more significant than that in dry season; CO2 emit from interface in the front of the dam and in tail area of reservoir, and CO2 sink in the middle part of the reservoir. There are CO2 emissions in July and August, CO2 absorption in March, September and November below dam. Finally, the analysis of influence factors showed that: the correlation between CO2 emission flux and turbidity, surface water temperature is poorer; there are significantly negative correlation between dissolved oxygen and CO2 emissions flux, and significantly positive correlation between pH value and CO2 emissions flux; The cage culture have positive effect on CO2 emission flux of reservoir; The CO2 emission flux in the hydro-fluctuation belt of reservoir is generally greater than the surrounding other areas; The CO2 emission flux under the dam is greatly affected by the reservoir operation
Keywords:  Greenhouse gas, CO2 emission flux,  Longkaikou Reservoir,  Upper Yangtze River
 


THE GRAFS/SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER MODELING SUITE: A TOOL FOR STUDYING C, N & P TRANSFERS ALONG THE LAND SEA CONTINUUM OF LARGE WATERSHEDS
Gilles BILLEN1, Josette GARNIER1 and Sylvain THERY1
1Sorbonne University, UPMC, CNRS, EPHE, UMR 7619 METIS, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 PARIS, FRANCE
Email: gilles.billen@upmc.fr
ABSTRACT
SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER (Billen et al., 2000; Garnier et al., 2002; Ruelland et al., 2007) is a well-established model of carbon and nutrient transfer and transformations along the drainage network of river systems at different scales, from small headwater streams to large fluvial basins. It is based on a detailed representation of the biogeochemical processes occurring within the water bodies during their downstream travel through the network from streams to rivers, as well as in the interface areas constituted by riparian zones and bottom sediments. It is able to simulate the seasonal variations of nutrients, organic carbon, oxygen and algal biomass at any point of a given river system from the knowledge of hydrological constraints as well as point and non-point sources of nutrients originating from human activity within the terrestrial basin.
In order to better define the relationship between nutrient diffuse sources and agricultural activities (or more generally the organization of the whole agro-food system) in the basin, the GRAFS approach has been developed and coupled with the SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER model. The GRAFS approach (Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System, Billen et al, 2014) offers a conceptual framework to establish the budget of N, P and C linked to cropping and livestock farming activities, including the nutrient losses to the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and their accumulation in the soil compartments.
This chain of models makes it possible not only to explore past trends of environmental changes, but also to test scenarios for reducing pollution losses to the environment possibly helping water managers and policy-makers.
The presentation will explain the general architecture of the GRAFS-SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER suite and its main component modules. It will serve as an introduction to the following practical training organized after the conference.     
Keywords: Seneque-Riverstrhaler model, River systems, Agro-food systems
 
References
Billen et al. (1994) Hydrobiologia  289: 119-137.;
Garnier et al (2002) Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.  54: 285-308 ;.
 Ruelland et al (2007) The Science of the Total Environment.  375 : 257–273;
Billen et al (2014) Global Food Security, 3: 209-219
 
 
 
The aquatic continuum of the Seine River: source or sink OF CO2 for the Atmosphere?
Audrey MARESCAUX1, Vincent THIEU1, Alberto BORGES2, Gilles BILLEN1 and Josette. GARNIER1
 
1Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, CNRS, EPHE, UMR 7619 METIS, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 PARIS, FRANCE. 
2Université de Liège, Unité d’Océanographie Chimique, Institut de Physique (B5), B-4000, BELGIUM.
Email: Audrey.Marescaux@upmc.fr,  josette.garnier@upmc.fr     
ABSTRACT
At the global scale, hydrographic networks are most of the time represented as a pipe without exchanges with the atmosphere and in-stream sediment; the same is true for lakes and reservoirs and wetlands. Therefore lateral carbon exchanges along the aquatic continuum have been largely underestimated in global budgets, and even ignored. Since the recent 10 years, some studies based either on modelling approaches at the global scale or on in situ measurements at regional scales have estimated C fluxes from 0.65 ± 0.2 PgC.yr-1  (Lauerwald et al., 2015) to 1.80 ± 0.25 PgC.yr-1 (Raymond et al., 2013). Such a flux is not negligible when compared  to oceanic and terrestrial carbon sink, respectively 2.9 ± 0.5 et 2.5 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1 (Le Quéré et al., 2014).
In the frame work of the C-Cascade project (ITN Marie Curie EU program), the Seine basin (intensively cropped and highly populated with Paris urban area in its middle) is a case study for determining the fate of carbon and quantifying the fluxes of its various forms. A sampling strategy consisted in investigating 40 river sites over the Seine Basin, including  small order rivers as well as  major branches, with their watershed comprising  different land use (urban zone, crop land, grassland, forest, and wetlands). Three campaigns have been realized in 2016 with contrasted hydrology/season with measurements of  both particulate and dissolved, organic and inorganic forms (POC, DOC, PIC, DIC) as well as direct gaseous pCO2 (infrared spectrometry). pH, temperature and alkalinity were also measured for an indirect determination of pCO2, and ancillary variables such as chlorophyll and nutrients were also analysed. We clearly showed an increase in pCO2 with higher water level, from 1000-3000 ppmv to 3000-6000ppmv, highest values being observed for grassland and wetland watersheds.   
A comparison of simultaneous direct measurements and indirect determinations of pCO2 show a significant linear relationship allowing to infer pCO2 from data bases including pH, temperature, alkalinity (since 1974 at the scale of the whole Seine watershed from the Water Agency, and since 2000 for 700 km longitudinal profiles from our own measurements). These spatial-temporal chronicles reveal that the Seine River is clearly heterotrophic, and more so in the major urbanized branch than in its upstream sectors. Heterotrophy in the major branch was also more pronounced in the 1980-1990 at the maximum of domestic pollution. 
All this work, will further allow to implement a pCO2 module (Gypens et al., 2004) in the Rivestrahler model, which will be added to the representation of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O).
Keywords: Seine River, Carbon forms, pCO2, autotrophy/heterotrophy 
References
Gypens et al. (2004). Biogeosciences, 1, 147-157 
Lauerwald R. et al. (2015). Biogeochem.Cycles, 29, 1-21;
Le Quéré, C. et al., (2014). Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7(1), 47–85
Raymond P., Nature, 503(7476), 355–359.
 


ORGANIC CARBON IN THE RED RIVER, VIET NAM: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING
Thi Mai Huong NGUYEN1,2*, Emma ROCHELLE-NEWALL2, Josette GARNIER3, Gilles BILLEN3 and Thi Phuong Quynh LE 1,
1 INPC, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2 IRD, iEES-Paris, Paris 75005, FRANCE
3 CNRS, UMR METIS 7619 UPMC, Paris 75005, FRANCE
Emailhuongmtv.ctc@gmail.com 
ABSTRACT
The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam. It also constitutes the main source of water for a large percentage of the population of North Vietnam. However, little has been published on the measurements and modeling of organic matter in this ecosystem, despite it’s importance in terms of carbon export to the adjacent coastal ocean. Here we present the results of an investigation into particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam, based on measurements in the main branches of the river as well as on the application of a model of organic carbon dynamics.  POC concentrations ranged from 0.24 - 5.8 mgCl-1 and DOC concentrations ranged from 0.26 - 5.39 mgCl-1. Biodegradability of DOC and POC differed with season in the four stations, BDOC concentrations varied from about 0.2 to 2.84 mgCl-1 and BPOC concentration ranged from 0.02 to 2.6 mgCl-1. The model RIVERSTRAHLER/SENEQUE was used to investigate the dynamics and seasonal distribution of organic carbon in the river. The results of the model show that, in general, the model simulations of the temporal variations and spatial distribution in organic carbon concentration followed the observed trends. They also show the importance of the high population in the watershed on the inputs of organic carbon from surface runoff from the different land use classes and from urban point sources. A budget of the main fluxes of organic carbon in the whole river network, including diffuse inputs from soil leaching and runoff, point sources from urban centers, algal primary production and heterotrophic respiration is established based on the model results. It shows the predominantly heterotrophic character of the river system, and allows evaluating the flux of CO2 across the river-atmosphere interface to 330 GgCyr-1, in reasonable agreement with a few available direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in the downstream part of the river network.
Keywords  Organic carbon dynamics, RIVERSTRAHLER/SENEQUE model, Red River basin, Vietnam
 
 

RELATIONSHIP OF BIO-PHYSICO-CHEMICAL VARIABLES ON THE CALCULATED FLUX OF CO2 IN DIFFERENT SEASONS AT FIVE SITES ALONG THE RED RIVER SYSTEM
Cuong Tu HO1*, Thi Phuong Quynh LE2 , Cyril MARCHAND3Duy An VU2, Thi Bich Ngoc NGUYEN2, Bich Thuy NGUYEN2, Quang Le DANG4, Thi Thuy DUONG1 and Trung Kien NGUYEN1  
1: Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, VIETNAM  
2: Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, VIETNAM
3: IRD, Paris 75005, FRANCE
4: Vietnam Institute of Industrial Chemistry, 2 Pham Ngu Lao, Hoan Kiem district, Hanoi, VIETNAM
Email: hotucuong@gmail.com    
ABSTRACT
The impact of water quality parameters at five sites along the Red River on calculated flux of CO2 in rainy and dry seasons was evaluated. In this study, Physico-chemical variables were automatically recorded at the interval of 1 min during 24h of each sampling campaign: pH, turbidity, salinity, chlorophyll a by the sensor YSI6920 (YSI, USA); temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) by a HOBO sensor; and the flux of CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon were calculated by CO2-SYS EXCEL Marco software, basing on the total alkalinity concentrations and the pH values which were measured in-situ at 5 sites. Our data showed that the flux of CO2 was changed spatially and temporally; the highest flux was calculated at Hoa Binh (with the mean value of 38.89 ± 21.44 mmol.m-2.d-1) and the lowest was at Yen Bai (the mean value of 5.53 ± 2.38 mmol.m-2.d-1). The calculation of simple linear regression showed that the flux of CO2 were negatively correlated with Chl a variable but positively correlated with DOC, POC, DIC, pCO2, salinity, and temperature variables. In addition, the impact of DO variable varied from rainy to dry seasons and from site to site. The correlation between the flux of CO2 with temperature, pCO2 and salinity was relatively tight, with R-squared ranging from 0.1 to 0.8, depending on the sites and seasons. Based on the principle components analysis (PCA), it is suggested that all sites were affected by different components by different periods, except from pCO2 and CO2 flux were major factors at Hoa Binh in both seasons.
Keywords: CO2 flux, Red River, water-air CO2, environmental parameters
 
 
 
LONGTERM VARIATION (1980 -2014) OF THE RIVERINE CARBON FLUX OF THE RED RIVER SYSTEM (VIETNAM)
Viet Nga DAO1,2, Thi Phuong Quynh LE2*, Emma ROCHELLE-NEWALL3 , Nhu Da LE1, and Thi Mai Huong NGUYEN2
1: Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development. 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, VIETNAM.
2: Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, VIETNAM
3:  IRD, UMR211-BIOEMCO, University Paris 6, Paris 75005, FRANCE
Email: quynhltp@gmail.com    
ABSTRACT
The Red River is a good example of an Asian river to investigate the longterm effects from human activities and natural conditions on the riverine transfer of  sediment and carbon transport. As many other rivers in the World, the Red River has experienced great changes in discharge and sediment due to natural conditions and human activities impacts during the past decades. In this study, basing on the relationship between POC, DOC and DIC, with water discharge or sediment and the available detailed historical records of river discharge and sediment, the long-term variations in the period from 1980 -2014 of the riverine carbon flux of the Red River system was examined. The results showed that the POC flux and total carbon fluxes clearly decreased due to a numbers of dams/reservoirs impoundment in the main courses of the upstream Red River. The DOC and DIC fluxes also showed a declining trend, but with a very small slope. The total carbon fluxes of the Red River averaged  2,377 ± 639 ktonC.yr-1, equivalent to 15,191 ± 4,087 kgC.km-2.yr-1 during the period 1980 – 2014 of which the DIC fluxes (68%) dominated total carbon fluxes. The POC fluxes were partitioned 21.8% of the total carbon flux due to the impoundment of series dams/reservoirs in the upstream part of the Red River. During the study period, the proportion of organic carbon fluxes also decreased due to the dam/reservoirs impacts, whereas the dissolved inorganic DIC fluxes proportion increased.
Keywords     dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, inorganic carbon, long-term riverine carbon flux, Red River
 


SEASONAL VARIATION OF WATER QUALITY AND PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY IN THE RED RIVER SYSTEM
Thi Bao Ngoc TRAN1,  Thi Thu Hang HOANG1, Trung Kien NGUYEN1,  Thi Phuong Quynh LE2,  XiXi LU3 and  Thi Thuy DUONG1
1: Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, VIETNAM 
2: Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, VIETNAM
3: Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Arts Link 1, Singapore 117570,  SINGAPORE
E-mail: duongthuy0712@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to understand the seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community in the Red River system. The water quality and plankton were measured during the dry and wet season for 4 years from 2012 to 2015 at 9 sampling stations in the Red River system. Data showed the average concentrations of some parameters such as DOC, NO3, NO2, CO2 and SS in water samples which experienced changes throughout the 4 years. The concentrations of these parameters were higher in the year 2015 compared to the ones from the same period in the years 2012, 2013 and 2014.  The seasonal, spatial trends were clearly identified in the results observed and were related to the annual monsoon rainy season – dry season cycle in the Red River delta.
The phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms, followed by chlorophytes, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The seasonal pattern of phytoplankton abundance was strongly influenced by river water temperature combined with nutrient concentrations.
Keywords: water quality, phytoplankton, Red River,Vietnam
 


C, N AND P DYNAMICS WITHIN THE SAIGON RIVER – CAN GIO MANGROVE:  IMPACT OF HO CHI MINH MEGACITY?
Thi Ngoc Tuyet NGUYEN1, 2, Julien NEMERY1, 2, Nicolas GRATIOT1, 2, Emilie STRADY1, 2, Phong T. NGUYEN2, Joanne AIME2,3, An T. NGUYEN2
1 University Grenoble Alpes/IRD, LTHE, 38000 Grenoble, FRANCE
2 Asian Center of Water Research (CARE), Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, VIETNAM
3 IRD, VIETNAM
E-mail: ngoctuyet1412@gmail.com; julien.nemery@grenoble-inp.fr
ABSTRACT
The Saigon River – Can Gio Mangrove hydrosystem located in the Southern Vietnam constitutes a complex hydrological network that receives a seasonal fluctuation of water flow also subjected to tidal influence. Besides, the increased economic, industrial and domestic development of the megacity of the Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) led to serious impacts on the water resources. In particular, untreated urban wastewater and industrial discharges affect surface water quality and might impact the downstream ecosystem composed of large aquaculture production areas within the UNESCO protected mangrove area of Can Gio.
The aim of this talk is to present the monitoring program implemented recently in the Saigon River – Can Gio Mangrove hydrosystem in the framework of various French and Vietnamese programs (CMIRA Région Rhône Alpes project, Vietnam National University project, EC2CO submitted project). Nutrients (N, P, Si) and carbon (C) on water, suspended sediment and sediment are assessed completed by eutrophication indicators (Chlorophyll a, phaeopigments). Based on longitudinal profiles, bi-monthly monitoring at key sites from upstream to downstream, tide cycle survey, core sampling and deposited sediment collection, we will present a global preliminary overview of the nutrients sources and transformation within the Saigon River – Can Gio Mangrove hydrosystem and some first evaluation of eutrophication risk assessment. Discussion will be open on the difficulty to calculate nutrients fluxes to the coastal zone in such tidal river system.
Keywords: tidal and tropical river, mangrove, nutrients, eutrophication, Megacity



OVERVIEW OF ANALYSIS OF CHLORINATED PESTICIDES IN POLLUTED SITES
Tuan Linh PHAM1, Thi Thao NGUYEN2, Viet Hoang NGUYEN1 and Thanh Dong NGUYEN1*
1 Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, VIETNAM.
2 Chemical Faculty, Hanoi University of Science, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi, VIETNAM.
E-mail:  chdong200560078@yahoo.com   
 
ABSTRACT
A fast method of analysis for chlorinated pesticides was developed using high pressure injection gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HP-GC-MS).  The HP-GC-MS approach used an analytical column of 15 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 µm fused silica capillary column and high pressure at the injector. The optimal HP-GC-MS conditions were determined which achieved the fastest separation (total running time was less than 12 min) with the highest signal/noise ratio in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode.
Extraction of chlorinated pesticides in soil samples was carried out by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) method using 10 mL of acetonitrile. Spiking experiments were carried out to determine the recovery,  precision of the method.  The overall recovery was above 80%  in the spiked soil samples at 0.1,  0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg levels.
The developed method is applied to analyze and evaluate contamination levels of chlorinated pesticides in polluted sites.
Keywords:  Pesticide polluted sites, high pressure gas chromatography mass spectrometry,  fast analysis



OBSERVATORY OF THE EVOLUTION OF MANGROVE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE WITH A FOCUS ON THEIR ABILITY TO FIX AND STORE CARRBON
Cyril MARCHAND
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), FRANCE
Email:  cyril.marchand@ird.fr
ABSTRACT
Mangroves are forested ecosystems developing in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coastlines. They are among the most productive ecosystems (Kristensen et al., 2008; Alongi, 2009), with a net primary production (NPP) estimated at 218 ± 72 TgC.y-1 (Bouillon et al., 2008). Because of their high NPP, and low decomposition rate in their soils, resulting from waterlogging, mangroves are an interesting blue carbon sink (Donato et al., 2011). Recent climate change is causing a growing awareness of the need to investigate the effects of global change on ecosystems by the scientific and political communities. The assessment of this phenomenon requires both a climate monitoring and the study of the impact of its development on terrestrial and marine environments. At this stage, the series are not long enough to distinguish between long-term trends from short and medium terms variability. This is particularly true for the tropics, less studied than temperate zones, so it is necessary to follow up on the long-term tropical environment. In this context, scientists from different countries in the Indo-Pacific area decided to develop a scientific project that will contribute to the overall understanding of the functioning and the evolution of mangroves in the context of global changes, and more specifically on their ability to fix and store carbon. To reach our goal, we are developing:  1) a network of scientific instruments, including eddy-covariance system, within mangrove stands at different latitudes representative of a biodiversity and climatic gradient, ii) experiments within elevated CO2 greenhouses, iii) follow mangrove evolution by remote sensing. To achieve this gradient, we have selected research sites within three countries:  New Zealand (1 mangrove species, temperate climate), New Caledonia (25 mangrove species, semi-arid to tropical climate), and Vietnam (~50 mangrove species, tropical climate). We recently published a paper with our first results from the eddy-covariance system in New Caledonia (Leopold et al., 2016). It was notably demonstrated that water availability from tides and rainfall is a major determining factor of net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Maximum daytime NEE occurred during high tide as a result of lower direct contribution of below-canopy respirations to the ecosystem respiration and because photosynthesis rate may increase during submerged conditions. Moreover, the importance of water availability on the productivity of this ecosystem productivity was shown by the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) seasonal variation, being the highest at the end of wet season.
Keywords     Mangrove, carbon cycling, CO2, climate changes



 BELOWGROUND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN PLANTED MANGROVES IN XUAN THUY NATIONAL PARK, NAM DINH PROVINCE, VIETNAM
Thi Hien HA1 and Thi Kim Cuc NGUYEN2*
[1]Thi Hien HA, Faculty of Environment, Water Resources University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da Dist, Hanoi, VIETNAM
2Thi Kim Cuc NGUYEN, Department of Natural Resources Management, Water Resources University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da Dist, Hanoi, VIETNAM
Emailnguyencucvn@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Mangroves play a vital role in carbon sequestration, one of the components that leads to global warming. The aim of this study is to quantify the carbon concentration of planted Kandelia obovata (Sheue, H.Y. Lui & J. Yong) in Xuan Thuy National Park, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam. Three plots were set up in mangroves which were planted in 1998 and the other three were in bare - land (with no mangroves covering). Nine geo-slicers up to the depth of 100 cm were taken in each of the planted mangroves and bare-land. In each slice, ten soil samples were collected with 10 cm depth interval. Later on, death roots and live roots were sorted. Carbon contents in soils and in roots were analyzed using the Walkley - Black method and the LOI method, respectively; then the total belowground carbon sequestration was estimated. There was a depth related distribution of carbon content in soil. Accumulated carbon up to depth of 100 cm in soil and roots in the planted K. obovata  were 146.78 ± 3.72 ton C.ha-1 and  12.67 ± 0.14  ton C.ha-1, respectively. The value was 87.59 ± 1.08  ton C.ha-1 for bare-land. There was significant difference (P<0.001) between belowground  carbon storages  among planted mangroves and the bare-land. The study results showed that mangrove has a high potential of capturing belowground carbon, and planted mangroves may act as climate change mitigation.
Keywords     Mangrove, carbon content, carbon sequestration, Vietnam
 
 
 
WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR AQUACULTURE IN AN GIANG PROVINCE
Thi Diem Phuong PHAM1*,  Thi Ngoc Ly NGUYEN1 and Viet Cuong DANG2
1  Faculty of Environment, Ho Chi Minh University of Natural Resources and Environment, 236B Le Van Sy, Tan Binh District, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM.
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM.
Email: phuongpham1910@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
With an area of ​​545 ha of aquaculture including 340 ha of catfish farming, An Giang is being invested and developed to become a leader province of aquaculture in the Mekong Delta. However the current water quality for aquaculture is at risk of and could affect the quality and yield of aquaculture products. In cooperation with local institution, the team set up a monitoring system for water sampling and analysis to provide variable water quality changes to better service for aquaculture activities.
The results showed that in comparison with the Vietnam National technical regulation (NTR) on surface water quality No 08: 2015/BTNMT and surface water quality for aquaculture No. 38:2011/BTNMT, 7/9   monitoring positions could meet NTR and are suitable for aquaculture. The Water quality index (WQI) of 2 entire positions is 66 and 69 should only be allowed to be used for irrigation purposes and other similar usage purposes.
Keywords: Mekong Delta, water quality, aquaculture, water quality index.



ASSESSMENT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM  ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND GREEN GROWTH
Quang-Dung BACH
Vietnam-Korea Center for Environmental Research and Training under Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Climate Change, No. 3, Dang Thai Than Road, Hoan Kiem district, Hanoi, VIETNAM.
E-mail:  bqd@imh.ac.vn
ABSTRACT
The Vietnam Forests and Deltas Program (VFD) was supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) for Vietnam under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). The project aimed to support Vietnam’s goals for climate-resilience, low emission, sustainable development by improving land-use planning, forest and natural resource management and engaging communities in development of action plans to address climate change impacts in four provinces (Nam Dinh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Long An). The capacity building for leadership of four provinces was an important issue of the project. The study focuses on assessment of training program on climate change and green growth. The innovative and active trainings for local government have applied and implemented in four provinces. All steps to open training have to apply such as training need assessment, preparation, implementation and evaluation. The results obtained from each training shown good lesson learnt for further trainings about climate change and green growth for local government in Vietnam in general, and Hong Delta in particular.
Keywords: assessment, training, climate change, green growth



ESTIMATING SEA LEVEL RISE FOR HONG – THAI BINH DELTA COASTAL AREAS
Xuan Hien NGUYEN
Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Climate Change, No. 3, Dang Thai Than Road, Hoan Kiem district, Hanoi, VIETNAM.
E-mail: nguyenxuanhien79@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Sea level rise for Hong – Thai Binh delta coastal areas in the 21st century was determined under both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Sea level rise scenarios for Hong – Thai Binh delta coastal areas is built on the basis of guidance from the IPCC AR5. Changes in the sea level due to dynamic and thermosteric processes was estimated using the results of the different Atmosphere - Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCMs). Changes to sea level due to ice melting and land water storage was determined using the transfer function for global water balance based on the contribution of each sea level rise contributing component for the different regions. Changes to sea level as a result of the vertical motion of the Earth’s crust due to changes in the Earth’s cryosphere was determined using the ICE5G models. The results showed that for the RCP 8.5 scenario, at the end of the 2st  century the average sea level for  Hong – Thai Binh delta coastal areas increase is 72cm, with estimated values varying between 49cm and 101cm at the 5% and 95% confidence intervals respectively. For the RCP 4.5 scenario, the average sea level increase is 53cm, with values of 32cm and 75cm at the 5% and 95% confidence interval respectively.
Keywords:   Hong- Thai Binh river, sea level rise, climate change



WHAT CHANGES IN THE LAND TO SEA CONTINUUM OF THE SOUTH ASIAN SEA?
Paul PASSY1*, Josette GARNIER2, Gilles BILLEN2, Xixi LU1, Shaoda LIU1
1 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link,  117570, SINGAPORE.
2 UPMC, University Pierre & Marie Curie, UMR 7619 Sisyphe, box 123, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, FRANCE.
E-mail: paul.passy@nus.edu.sg
ABSTRACT
The environment of South Asian Sea (SAS), located in Southeast Asia, is changing quickly. The marine ecosystems of the SAS are extremely varied. The estuaries are covered by mangroves, coral reefs are found along the shores and many different species live in the pelagic domain. The economic importance of the SAS is crucial for surrounding countries. Fishing activities, aquaculture and tourism are key economic sectors for many countries what border the SAS.
The watersheds of the SAS are shared among 11 countries. The economy and demography of these countries have changed dramatically over the last 20 years and are still changing. These changes have induced changes in land use, urbanisation and agriculture. These evolutions deeply impact the water, sediments and nutrients fluxes delivered to the SAS. Many countries are impacted by deforestation which may lead to an increase of sediments fluxes. At the opposite end, dams and reservoirs built on many rivers may reduce the fluxes of water and sediments. Nutrients fluxes are deeply impacted by the growing urban areas and the changes in agriculture. Cities expand and in many cases the sewage systems are underdeveloped, leading to an increase of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon fluxes. Many deforested areas have been replaced by rubber plantations or oil palm plantations. These industrial plantations may use large quantities of fertilizers and pesticides, leading to an increase in nutrients fluxes.
The aim of this project is first to assess the impacts of the different changes occurring within the watersheds of the SAS on the fluxes delivered to the coastal zones. In a second instance a modelling approach will be developed in order to better mitigate the different impacts of human activities on the quality of the hydrosystems of the SAS region.
Keywords  South Asian Sea, aquatic continuum, fluxes, remote sensing



APPLICATIONS IDW MODEL IN GIS TO FORECAST THE QUALITY OF
AIR ENVIRONMENT IN VINH CITY, NGHE AN PROVINCE
Tran Thi Tuyen, Luong Thi Thanh Vinh(1)
 
(1)Geography - resource management, Vinh University
                                                     E-mail:  ttt.dhv@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Air environment plays an important role in human life. Currently, environmental air quality in some cities, especially industrial cities is changing rapidly. Research of environmental forecasting air quality has been laid out and implemented by several different methods, including the application of GIS technology research is highly effective. Based on the spatial data and non-spatial, GIS and interpolation algorithm allowing environmental forecasting air quality in the future. In the study of environmental monitoring in general, in particular air environment, the application of GIS mostly stop at the mapping step shown in position sampling, collect the raw data to be presented in the form periodic reports, functional analysis, evaluation, especially forecasts of GIS under-exploited. Vinh City is located in center of Viet Nam, where has some air pollution areas: industrial parks, major traffic routes. The increase the population and transport while infrastructure is not good making the air pollution increased. On the other hand, in the planning of city development (urban planning, transport planning), there are no environmental prediction. Inthe environmental management, the techniques to forecast the environmentmonitoring are unused. Applications interpolation models in GIS technology to move data from point format (monitoring data) into a zone (map), contributing to improving the management capacity of the database, analysis, comparison matching spatial data, forecasts of future affected areas. Forecast results is the scientific basis for the use of planning scenarios and planning territorial environmental protection.
This paper presents the results of regression analysis and application of IDW interpolation model to predict air quality of the environment (example for dust content) based on the spatial data and non- spatial data in Vinh City, Nghe An province. From the collected set data, regression equation allow predicting air quality to 2020, IDW interpolation model in GIS helps mapping the quality of the environment. The study results showed air concentrations differ between the monitoring location and the areas that affected by the concentration of dust.
Keywords: IDW interpolation model, GIS, environmental air, Vinh City



LCA: GHG BALANCE OF CASSAVA-BASED ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN VIETNAM
Trong Nghia NGUYEN1*,  Huyen Trang NGUYEN1, Hoang Quyen TRAN2, and Thuy Trang PHAM2

1Institute for Industrial Policies and Strategies, Ministry of Industry and Trade of Viet Nam – 23 Ngo Quyen, Hoan Kiem, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
2Food Industry Research Institute, Ministry of Industry and Trade of Viet Nam – 301 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. ABSTRACT
To contribute to the reduction of GHG emission by implementing biofuel development program of the Government of Viet Nam, MOIT has conducted the research “LCA: GHG balance of cassava based Ethanol production in Viet Nam” with valuable support from AFD.
The project aims to assess the value chain of Ethanol, from cassava cultivation activity through transportation activity to conversion activity in plants which all lead to the final product of bio-Ethanol. Quatitative result of the project is the GHG emission of the mentioned activity, converted into CO2equipvalent and divided by sub-sectors as detail as possible.
The research team implemented the project by carrying out assessment in term of survey and in-depth interview. Surveys were collected from farmers, traders, plants, local government, etc... In-depth interviews were conducted with Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of 8 provinces, 2 Ethanol production plants.
Collected data was combined with national statistic published by GSO and reference related to GHG inventory at national and internaltional level, to conduct calculation of GHG emission for agriculture activity, transportation activity, and conversion activity. Final calculation included emissions of Dung Quat plant and Tung Lam plant seperately during the period of time from 2010 to 2014.
In 2013, both plants operated at highest capacity so emissions in 2013 were used for further analysis and comparision. Based on comparision between 2 plants in Viet Nam together with research result in Thailand and China, the ethanol production industry in Viet Nam has great potential for GHG reduction. For improvement, recommendations for Viet Nam include energy efficiency, low carbon energy alternative, efficient CO2 recovery, methane recovery as a source of fuel, etc...
The project result has opened further research which aims to quantify the potential for GHG reduction when developing biofuel to partly replace traditional gasoline. The research team also recommended to establish a framework to improve the quality of input data for calculation which also contributes to the responsibility of MOIT in implementing the Prime Minister Decision 2359/QD-TTg related to the establishment of national system for GHG inventories.
Keywords: Biofuel, Ethanol, GHG, reduction, energy, agriculture, emission, transportation



LIST OF PARTICIPANTS  
No Titles and Full Name Address contacts
  1.  
Prof. Dr Quoc Long PHAM Director, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;     
mar.biochem@fpt.vn
  1.  
Ass.Prof. Dr Manh Cuong NGUYEN Deputy Director, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;     
nmcuong_inpc@yahoo.com.vn
  1.  
Ass.Prof. Dr Mai Huong LE Chairman of Scientific Council of INPC, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;    
lehuong00@yahoo.com
  1.  
Dr Tat Thanh LE Deputy Director,  Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;
thanh.biotech@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr  Josette GARNIER UMR Sisyphe 7619, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FRANCE; josette.garnier@upmc.fr
  1.  
Dr Gilles BILLEN UMR Sisyphe 7619, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FRANCE;
gilles.billen@upmc.fr
  1.  
Prof. Dr XiXi LU National University of Singapore, NUS, SINGAPORE;           
geoluxx@nus.edu.sg
  1.  
Dr Paul PASSY National University of Singapore, NUS, SINGAPORE;           
paul.passy@nus.edu.sg
  1.  
PhD student  Shaoda LIU National University of Singapore, NUS, SINGAPORE;           
lsdeel@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Kaidao FU Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, CHINA
kdfu@ynu.edu.cn
  1.  
Dr NuFang FANG State Key laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dry land Farming on Loess Plateau. Institute of soil and water conservation, CAS & MWR, CHINA
fnf@ms.iswc.ac.cn
  1.  
Dr Julien NEMERY University Grenoble Alpes, FRANCE
Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, VIETNAM
julien.nemery@grenoble-inp.fr
  1.  
Dr Cyril MARCHAND Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), FRANCE
cyril.marchand@ird.fr
  1.  
Mr Sylvain THERY UMR Sisyphe 7619, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FRANCE
sylvain.thery@upmc.fr
  1.  
PhD student Thi Ngoc Tuyet NGUYEN Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, VIETNAM
ngoctuyet1412@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Thi Nguyet Minh LUU Institute of Chemistry (ICH, VAST) Hanoi, VIETNAM;
luu.minh@ich.vast.vn
  1.  
Dr Thanh Dong NGUYEN Institute of Environmental Technology (IET, VAST), Hanoi, VIETNAM; 
chdong200560078@yahoo.com
  1.  
Dr Thi Thuy DUONG Institute of Environmental Technology (IET, VAST), Hanoi, VIETNAM; 
duongthuy0712@yahoo.com
  1.  
Dr  Cuong Tu HO Institute of Environmental Technology (IET, VAST), Hanoi, VIETNAM;
 hotucuong@gmail.com
  1.  
Ms Thi Bao Ngoc NGUYEN Institute of Environmental Technology (IET, VAST), Hanoi, VIETNAM;
Baongocnguyen1808@gmail.com
  1.  
MSc Trung Kien NGUYEN Institute of Environmental Technology (IET, VAST), Hanoi, VIETNAM;
nguyenkien.et@gmail.com
  1.  
Ass Prof Dr Kim Cuc NGUYEN Water Resources University, Hanoi, VIETNAM; nguyencucvn@gmail.com
  1.  
PhD student Thi Hien HA Water Resources University, Hanoi, VIETNAM;
hienht@wru.vn
  1.  
Mrs  Bich Nga TRAN Department of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, VIETNAM
bich_nga208@yahoo.com
  1.  
PhD Thi Thanh Thuy TONG National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection (NIAPP), Hanoi, VIETNAM
tongthithanhthuy@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Thi Diem Phuong PHAM  Ho Chi Minh University of Natural Resources and Environment, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM
phuongpham1910@gmail.com  
  1.  
MSc Viet Cuong DANG Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh City, VIETNAM
dvcuong971@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Quang Dung BACH
 
Vietnam-Korea Center for Environmental Research and Training under Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Climate Change, Hanoi, VIETNAM
bqd@imh.ac.vn
  1.  
Dr Xuan Hien NGUYEN
 
Vietnam Institute of Meteorology Hydrology and Climate Change, Hanoi, VIETNAM
nguyenxuanhien79@gmail.com  
  1.  
MSc Anh Tuan NGUYEN Climate Change Research Centre (CRCC), Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change,  Ha Noi, VIETNAM
athnvn@gmail.com
  1.  
MSc Hung Phu LE Department of Hydro Geo - Chemistry
Institute of Oceanography,  VAST, Nha Trang, VIETNAM
hungphu219@gmail.com
  1.  
MSc Van Luong CAO Institute of Marine  Environment and Resources, IMER, VAST, Hai Phong, VIETNAM
luongcv@imer.ac.vn ; caoluongimer@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Thi Hong Hanh TRAN Xuan Thuy National Park, Nam Dinh, VIETNAM
hanhvqgxt@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Thi Tuyen TRAN Geography - resource management, Vinh university, Nghe An, VIETNAM
 ttt.dhv@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Trong Nghia NGUYEN Institute for Industrial Policies and Strategies, Ministry of Industry and Trade of Viet Nam – 23 Ngo Quyen, Hoan Kiem, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
ntnghia.nguyen@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Nhu Da LE Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;     
nhudal@yahoo.com
  1.  
Dr Thi Phuong Quynh LE Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;     
quynhltp@yahoo.com
  1.  
Ass Prof Dr Minh Ha LE Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;     
halm2vn@gmail.com
  1.  
Mr Van Hoan NGUYEN Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;
hoan316@yahoo.com
  1.  
Dr  Mai Huong NGUYEN Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;    
huongmtv@yahoo.com
  1.  
MSc Bich Thuy NGUYEN Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM; nguyenbichthuy2000@yahoo.co.uk
  1.  
BSc Thi Bich Ngoc NGUYEN Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM;  nguyenbichngoc2304@gmail.com
  1.  
BSc Duc Nghia LE Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM; 
lnghia2015@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Huu Nghi DO Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM; 
nghi@inpc.vast.vn
  1.  
AssProf Dr Kim Chi NGO Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM; 
chikimngo2@yahoo.com; chikimngo2008@gmail.com
  1.  
Dr Thu Thuy DINH Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, INPC, VAST, VIETNAM; 
thuydt03@yahoo.com
  1.  
Student Kieu Chinh TRAN  Electric Power University (EPU), Hanoi, VIETNAM
Trankieuchinh1394@gmail.com
  1.  
Student  Thi Hang VU  Electric Power University (EPU), Hanoi, VIETNAM
Vuhang94samson@gmail.com
  1.  
Student Thi Trang  NGO  Electric Power University (EPU), Hanoi, VIETNAM
Ngothitrang1510@gmail.com
  1.  
Student Thi Minh Giang NGUYEN  Electric Power University (EPU), Hanoi, VIETNAM
Nguyengiangdanda@gmail.com
 
  1.  
Student Lan Huong NGO  Electric Power University (EPU), Hanoi, VIETNAM
Ngolanhuong19194@gmail.com
  1.  
Student Thi Minh Thuy DO  Electric Power University (EPU), Hanoi, VIETNAM
Dothuy623544@gmail.com
  1.  
Student Mr Tien Khang MAI Industrial University of Hochiminh No3, Thanh Hoa, VIETNAM
hoangbavuongone@gmail.com
  1.  
Student Bich Thuy TRAN Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, VIETNAM
tranbichthuy_t58@hus.edu.vn

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