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Red River Basin - human activities and climate change

Results

I. Research results
 
Field observation: C content
Monthly DOC and POC concentrations at the outlets of the Thao, Da, Lo and in the main branch of the Red River showed that no clear spatial or seasonal variation was observed for DOC concentrations whereas POC varied significantly both spatially and between the dry and rainy seasons (Figure 1).
 
                                               
Figure 1.Seasonal variation of water discharge and DOC and POC concentration at the four gauging stations: Yen Bai (Thao river), Vu Quang (Lo River), HoaBinh (Da River) and Hanoi (downstream main axe of the Red River). Note difference in scale on the left-handy-axis for the lower panel (Hanoi). (Le et al., 2017, accepted)

The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) contents of the Red River were higher in dry season (from November to next April) than in wet season (from May to October) (Figure 2).
 
                                                                     
Figure 2.Seasonal variation of DIC contents at 4 observation sites of the Red River during the period 2008 – 2013 (Le et al., 2015)
Carbon outgassing from the Red River system
The in-situ measurements of CO2 emissions towards the atmosphere were carried out by three methods: calculation of CO2 fluxes either using a floating chamber connected to an IRGA, or determining pCO2 within the water column using an equilibrator or calculation via CO2 partial pressure pCO2 basing on the total alkalinity and pH values measured with the CO2-SYS software method. These two latter methods gave similar results whereas the first method is not applicable for a large river as the Red River.
The riverine water pCO2 was supersaturated with CO2with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium (400 µatm), averaging about 1590 µatm, thus resulting in a water–air CO2 fluxes of 28.6±19.3 mmol.m-2.day-1 for the whole Red River system. The results showed that CO2 outgassing rate from the water surface Red river network was characterized by significant spatial variations, being the highest downstream HoaBinh dam and in Hanoi, the main branch of the Red River. The highest value obtained at HoaBinh may reflect the important impact of a series of large dams (Son La, HoaBinh) in the Da river, and then leading to the higher value observed in the main downstream Red River branch at Hanoi after the confluence between Da, Lo, Thao rivers.
Differences in CO2 outgassing were also observed between day and night. A difference between the dry season and rainy season for the five sites was also observed of the Red River system during sampling campaigns in 2014 (Figure 3).

 
                                 
Figure 3: Spatial and seasonal variation in day and night of CO2 flux out-gassing from the Red River system (Le et al., 2017, in preparation).
 
Modelling results
The model was run for five years (2009 – 2014) and compared with the observed temporal changes in bulk OC concentration and that of its biodegradable fraction for both POC (Figure 4) and DOC (Figure 5). In general, the model simulations of the temporal variations in OC concentrations followed the same patternand reproduce the right level of values as that of the in situ data measurements, although the simulated concentrations was often lower for POC and higher for DOC, especially at the Vu Quang station (Figure 4, 5).

 
                            
Figure 4. Model simulated (black line) seasonal variations of POC (mgCL-1) and biodegradable POC (BPOC, mgCL-1; yellow line) for six stations in the Red river system for the years 2009 - 2014. The points represent the measured values of POC and BPOC at the different stations. BPOC was only determined at Yen Bai and Hanoi. (Nguyen et al., 2016 submitted)
 
                                
Figure 5. Model simulated (Black line) seasonal variations of DOC (mgCL-1) and biodegradable DOC (BDOC, mgCL-1; yellow line) for six stations in the Red river system for the years 2009 - 2014. The points represent the measured values of DOC and BDOC at the different stations. BDOC was only determined at Yen Bai and Hanoi. (Nguyen et al., 2016 submitted)
 
Overall, the Red River system appears to be a strongly heterotrophic system, receiving high amounts of allochthonous organic carbon from diffuse sources (soil leaching and erosion, with only limited biodegradability), and from wastewater inputs (with high biodegradability). In contrast, autochthonous primary production only contributes about 10% of the total OC inputs. About half the total inputs of OC to the system are respired and lost to the atmosphere, while the remaining part is exported to the estuarine and coastal zone (Figure 6). These results further underline the importance of tropical rivers and estuaries in the global carbon budget and highlight the need for more research on these systems that represent 66.2 % of the total global freshwater flow (Huang et al., 2012).
 
                                                           Figure 6: (Nguyen et al., 2016, submitted)
 
 Long term observation/calculation of riverine carbon fluxes transferred to the coastal zone
Based on
i) the relationships between POC, DOC, and DIC, with suspended sediment concentrations and with river water discharge respectively
ii) the available detailed historical records of river discharge and suspended sediment concentrations, the long-term variations of the riverine organic and inorganic carbon concentrations and fluxes of the Red River system were examined for the period 1960 – 2015.
The results showed that seasonally, almost all the Red River carbon (POC, DOC and DIC) flux deliveries were transported to the estuary during rainy seasons (May to October) (> 75%). Spatially, among the three main tributaries of the upstream Red River, the highest carbon loads were transported through the Da River (1,666±753 kton.yr-1) due to its higher river discharge whereas the Thao and Lo Rivers were equal in terms of total carbon transported (906±354 kton.yr-1 and 870 ± 211 kton.yr-1, respectively) during 1960 – 2015 period. Overall, the total carbon fluxes of the Red River transferred to estuary significantly decreased from 2,816 ktonC.yr-1 in the period 1960s to 1,372 ktonC.yr-1 in the period 2010s  (Figure 7) in which, the proportion of organic carbon fluxes also clearly decreased, from 40.9% in 1960s to 15.9% in 2010s due to the important dam/reservoirs impacts despite the clear increase of deforestation and population in the whole river basin. Actually, DIC fluxes notably dominated total carbon fluxes of all three tributaries Thao, Da and Lo and the main axe of the Red River system.

 
                 
Figure 7: DOC, POC and DIC fluxes of three main tributaries Thao, Da and Lo rivers and of the whole Red River system (Le et al., 2017b, in preparation).

II. Data collection and synthesis

II.1 Data collection and construction


The long-term discrete existing data (since the 1960s) of the Red River, including water quality, land use, population, agricultural and industrial development, hydrological management, and meteorological data have been collected from different sources, such as previous scientific research project, data published in the national books, reports or data from different official agencies …
+ To collect and synthesize the long-term discrete existent data (since the 1960s) of the water quality, industrial and agricultural wastewater, meteorology, hydrology, population and landuse of the whole Red River system in both China and Vietnam terrain;     
+ To collect the data for prospective scenarios: climatic data (air temperature and rainfall); new reservoirs implementation, land use with intensive agricultural practices, industrial activities, population and urbanization increase of the basin in the 2050 horizon.
 The data collection are used for:
  1. modeling validation for describing the carbon transfer and carbon emission under the pressure of human activities and natural conditions in the Red River basin in the past, present and perspective scenarios
  2.  calculating carbon emission and flux from the Red River.
  All collected data have been synthesized and selectively presented in the part “Data - Document”.
(For detail, can be login or contact to download.)

II.2 Synthetizing dataset collected from different sources for the long-term variation of natural conditions and human activities in the Red River basin

  Climate and hydrology
The climate in the Red River basin is sub-tropical East Asia monsoonal type, wherethe South West monsoon from May to October brings warmer, wetter weather in rainy seasonand the North East monsoon from November to next Aprilbrings cooler, dryer weather in dry season. Annual rainfall strongly varies from 700 – 4,800 mmyr-1 across the basin with about 80% of rainfall occurring during the rainy season (May to October). The rainy season cumulates 85–90% of the total annual rainfall in the Red River catchment. July and August are the two months with the highest incidence of typhoons in the Red River area.
The average daily temperature varied from low values of 14 – 16° C in winter to higher values of 26 – 27oC in summer. Relative humidity was high throughout the year, averaging 82 – 84%.
The climate results in a hydrologic regime that is characterized by high runoff during the rainy season and low runoff during the dry season.
The daily river discharges at the outlets of the three tributaries Thao (Yen Bai station), Da (HoaBinh station) and Lo (Vu Quang station) and of the main axe of the Red River downstream at Hanoi stations were collected for the period 1960 - 2015 from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of VietnamMONRE (2015). The average river discharge of the Thao (at Yen Bai), Da (at HoaBinh), Lo (at Vu Quang) and in the main axe at Hanoi stations were 721 ± 159 m3.s-1;  1,674  ± 284m3.s-1;  1019 ± 227 m3.s-1 and 2,502 ± 477 m3.s-1 respectively for the study period.
The analysis of the daily and monthly river discharges at three main tributaries shows a significant relation to austral oscillations (ENSO). Over the considered period, the analysis of the cumulated sum of deviations from the mean (cusum) reveals inter-annual fluctuations with a frequency of 3–7 years, closely following the variations of the Southern Oscillation Index (Figure 8). Besides these variations, no evidence appears of any long-term trend of change in the hydrological regime, on either the annual water discharge or the water discharge in the dry or wet season.

                    
Figure 8. Similarity of the trends of variations of discharge and Southern Oscillation Index.a. Long-term variations of the water discharge of the Red River at Hanoi (entrance of the delta area). The solid line indicates the long term average; the dotted line, the average calculated for the period 1989-2009.;    b. Cumulated sum of discharge deviations from their long-term average value (i.e. cusum, Page 1954). The solid line represents the floating average of the cusum;   c.The long-term variations of the mean annual value of the austral oscillation indices (SOI). The solid line represents the floating average over 5 years. (Le et al., 2015b).
 
Reservoir impoundment
Reservoirs play an important role in the socio-economic development of both China and Vietnam. Reservoirs are used for flood control, irrigation, hydropower, water supply and flow management.In the Red River basin in both China and Vietnam territory, a series of reservoirs and dams have been constructed and operated.In the Chinese part, upstream of the Red River, there are a series of small and medium reservoirs/dams which have been impounded for hydropower since 2007: 29 dams constructed on the upstream Thao River(2 main intercepting dams, namely Namsha and Madushan (140km from the Vietnamese border to China) have a capacity of 130 and 300 MW, respectively (IMRR, 2010)); about 11 small hydrological dams on the upstream Da River; and at least 8 hydropower reservoirs on the upstream Lo River (Ha and Vu, 2012). In the Vietnamese part, there are four large dams/reservoirs including: the HoaBinh (in operation since 1989) and the Son La (in operation since 2010) reservoirs dammed on the main axe of the Da River; the Thac Ba (in operation since 1975) and the TuyenQuang (in operation in 2010) reservoirs on the Lo River. Other reservoirs are presently under construction such as the HuoiQuang and Lai Chau reservoirs (in operation in 2017) on the Da River (Table 1).
 
Table 1. Major characteristics of the large reservoirs/dams in the upstream Red River basinand water discharge output from dams to downstream river.
 
 Name
 
Date of impoundment River Basin area, km² Storage capacity, Mm3 Reservoir surface area, km2 Water level, (normal)
m
Thac Ba
(Lo river)
1972 6,170 2.9 235 58
HoaBinh
(Da river)
1989 57,285 9.5 208 115
Son La
(Da river)
2010 43,760 9.3 224 215
TuyenQuang
(Lo river)
2010 14,972 2.3 81.5 120
HuoiQuang
(Da river)
2017 2,824 16.3 8.7 370
Lai Chau
(Da river)
2017 26,000 0.7 39.6 295
 
Population and urbanization
For observation of long-term demographic changes, the FAO data showed a clear increase of population in Vietnam in term of total population and urban population within the 1950–2050 period. According to FAO statistics (FAO, 2009), the total population in Vietnam increased from 27.4 million in 1950 to 83.6 million in 2005, and should reach 118 million in the 2050s (Figure 9).
Even if the urban population has increased rapidly, the rural population still accounts for the largest proportion in the country (about 80% in the 1990s), typical characteristics of the social organization in Vietnam. The analysis of the population data given by villages in the Vietnamese Red River basin showed that 80% of the population lived in agglomerations numbering between 1000 and 10,000 inhabitants (Figure 9).
                                  
Figure 9. Population in Vietnam and the Red River basin. a. Long-term changes in urban and rural population in Vietnam (FAOstat 2009). b. Distribution of the population of the Vietnamese part of the Red River basin according to the size of the agglomeration in 1999. The curves show the cumulated fraction of the total population with increasing agglomeration size. (Le et al., 2015b).
 
 Land use
The forest area in the Red River delta has been quite stable for several centuries but the deforestation in the plateau and mountainous regions dramatically accelerated during the war years (1970s) and the following period of rapid population growth and economic development (1990s) (Figure 10).

          
Figure 10.Long-term variations of land use of the Red River sub-basins: Thao, Da and Lo and Delta. The bars are representing, for each decades, the estimated proportion of forest, bare land, agricultural land (excluding paddies), rice paddies and urban areas in the total land use (Le et al., 2015b). 

III. Publications belong to the research project: "Carbon fluxes and emission from the Red River (Vietnam and China): impact of climate change and human activities"


International peer-reviewed publications:
  1. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Viet Nga Dao, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Josette Garnier, XiXi Lu, Gilles Billen, Henri Etcheber, Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen, Bich Thuy Nguyen, Nhu Da Le and Pham Quoc Long. 2017. Total organic carbon fluxes of the Red River system (Vietnam).  Earth surface processes and landforms. DOI:10.1002/esp.4107.
  2. Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier, Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Quoc Long Pham, Sylvain Huon, Emma Rochelle-Newall. 2016. Organic carbon transfers in the subtropical Red River system (Vietnam): insights on CO2 sources and sinks.  Biogeochemistry. Submitted. (SCI, ISSN: 0168-2563).
  3. Hoang, Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen, Trung Kien, Le, Thi Phuong Quynh, Dang Dinh Kim, Duong, Thi Thuy. 2016. Assessment of the water quality downstream of Red River in 2015 (Vietnam).  Journal of Vietnamese Environment. (Journal of Dresden University, Germany). 8(3), 167 – 172,  DOI:10.13141/jve.vol8.no3.pp167-172.  ISSN 2193-6471.
  4. Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Phung, Thi Xuan Binh; Duong, Thi Thuy and Ho, Tu Cuong. 2016. Relationship of dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations with some environmental variables in the Red River water in the period 2008 – 2015. Journal of Vietnamese Environment. (Journal of Dresden University, Germany). Vol . 8(2): 102-106.  DOI:10.13141/jve.vol8.no2.pp102-106.  ISSN 2193-6471.
  5. Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Olivier Ribolzi, Thi Phuong Quynh Le. 2016. Modeling of Faecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) in the Red River basin (Vietnam). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.  Vol 188(9), 1-15.   DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5528-4.  (SCIE, ISSN: 0167-6369, IF= 1.63).
  6. Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Josette Garnier, Jean-Louis Janeau, E. Rochelle-Newall. 2016. Seasonal variation of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Vietnam. Scientific reports. 6, 21644. DOI: 10.1038/srep21644. (SCI, ISSN:  2045-2322, IF = 5.52).
  7. Lu XiXi, Oeurng Chattan, Thi Phuong Quynh Le and Thi Thuy Duong. 2015. Sediment budget of the lower Red River as affected by dam construction. Geomorphology.  248 (2015) 125–133. Doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.06.044.    SCI, ISSN 0169-555X 
  8. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier and Van Minh Chau. 2014. Long-term biogeochemical functioning of the Red River (Vietnam): past and present situations. Regional Environmental Change. Vol 15(2): 329 – 339. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-014-0646-4. ISSN 1436-378. (SCIE). ISSN 1436-378X.
  9. Duong, Thi Thuy, Le, Thi Phuong Quynh, Ho, Tu Cuong, Vu, Thi Nguyet, Hoang Thi Thu Hang, Dang Dinh Kim, Lu, Xixi. 2014. Phytoplankton community structure and water quality of Red River (Vietnam). Journal of Vietnamese Environment. (Journal of Dresden University, Germany). Vol 6(1-3): 27-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.13141/JVE.  ISSN 2193-6471.
  10. Duong, Thi Thuy, Vu, Thi Nguyet, Le, Thi Phuong Quynh, Ho, Tu Cuong, Hoang, Trung Kien, Nguyen, Trung Kien, Dang Dinh Kim. 2014. Seasonal variation of phytoplankton assemblage in Hoa Binh reservoir (North of Vietnam). Journal of Vietnamese Environment. (Journal of Dresden University, Germany). Vol 6(1-3): 22-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.13141/JVE.  ISSN 2193-6471.
  11. Le, Thi Phuong Quynh, Ho, Tu Cuong; Duong, Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Vu, Duy An; Pham, Quoc Long; Seidler, Christina. 2014. Water quality of the Red River system in the period 2012 – 2013. Journal of Vietnamese Environment. (Journal of Dresden University, Germany). Vol 6(1-3):  191 -195.  http://dx.doi.org/10.13141/JVE.  ISSN 2193-6471.
 
APN Science Bulletin publications:
  1. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Xi Xi Lu, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen, Thi Thuy Duong, Cuong Tu Ho, Thi Bich Nga Tran, Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen, Pham Quoc Long  and Zhou Yue. 2015. Carbon Flux and Emissions from the Red River: Human Activities and Climate Change. APN Science Bulletin Issue 5, 38 – 39, ISSN 2185-761x.
  2. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Xi Xi Lu, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen, Thi Thuy Duong, Cuong Tu Ho, Thi Bich Nga Tran, Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen and Zhou Yue. 2014. Carbon Flux and Emissions from the Red River: Human Activities and Climate Change. APN Science Bulletin Issue 4, March 2014,  68 - 71   ISSN 2185-761x.
  3. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Xi Xi Lu, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen, Thi Thuy Duong, Cuong Tu Ho, Thi Bich Nga Tran, Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen and Zhou Yue. 2013. Carbon Flux and Emissions from the Red River: Human Activities and Climate Change. APN Science Bulletin  Issue 3, March 2013,  92 - 95   ISSN 2185-761x
 
National papers published:
  1. Nguyen Thị Mai Huong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Phung Thi Xuan Binh, Emma Rochell-Newall, Jean Louis Janeau, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen. 2015. Relationship between bacteria and environmental factors in the Red River water of the section from Hanoi to Hung Yen. Journal of Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Industry. Vol 28-2015: 61- 65.
  2. Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Vu Duy An, Duong Thi Thuy and Ho Tu Cuong. 2014. Agricultural wastewater quality of a vegetable growing area Van Noi commune, Dong Anh district, Hanoi city. Science and Technology Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development, Vietnam. Vol 21: 65-71.  
  3. Vu Duy An, Le Thi Phuong Quynh,  Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Pham Quoc Long, Christina Seilder and Phung Thi Xuan Binh. 2014.  Wastewater quality of the agricultural region (vegetables - flowers - fruit trees) at Phu Dien and Tay Tuu wards (Hanoi). Journal of Science and Technology Development. Vol M2-2014 (17):  13 – 21.
  4. Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Vu Duy An, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong and Le Thi Phuong Quynh. 2014. Preliminary monitoring results on contents of some heavy metals in the Red River system. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology.  Vol 53(1): 64 – 76.
  5. Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Vu Duy An, Duong Thi Thuy and Le Thi Phuong Quynh. 2014. Preliminary monitoring results on total coliforms and fecal coliforms in the Red River system, section from Yen Bai to Hanoi. Vietnam Journal of Biology. Vol 36(2): 240 – 246. DOI: 10.15625/0866-7160/v36n2.5122
  6. Le Thi Phuong Quynh Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong. 2012. Preliminary results on the ratio of particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll a (POC/CHL-A) of the Red River system. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 50(4A): 387 – 390.
  7. Le Thi Phuong Quynh Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong. 2012. Preliminary results of carbon contents in the water environment of the Red River system. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology.  Vol. 50(3B):  47 - 52.
 
Full papers in international workshop/conference proceedings
  1. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Viet Nga Dao, Thi Anh Mai, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen,  Thi Thuy Duong, Cuong Tu Ho, Thi Xuan Binh Phung and Thi Bich Nga Tran. 2015. Transport of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Red River system (Vietnam).  International Forum on Green Technology and Management (IFGTM) , 28-30 July, Hue city, 2015. Journal of Science and Technology Vol 53(A): 151 -156.
  2. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Phung Thi Xuan Binh, Pham Quoc Long, Tran Thi Bich Nga, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles. 2015. Impact of the Thac Ba reservoir on water quality of the downstream Lo-Gam_Chay river system over the period 1960 – 2009. The International Science Conference on Green Growth and Energy for ASEAN, Hanoi, 16 – 18 October 2015. pg 193 - 198, Publishing house for Science and Technology, ISBN 978-604-913-389-3.
  3. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Tran Thi Bich Nga, Garnier Josette, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong and Phung Thi Xuan Binh. 2014. Observation of organic carbon contents in the Red river water (Vietnam). 2nd Vietnam National conference on Marine Biology and Sustainable development. October 2014, Quang Ninh city, page 703 – 710.  Publishing house of Natural Science and technology. DOI 10.15625/MBSD2.2014-0081.
  4. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Lu XiXi, Garnier Josette, Gilles Billen, Etcheber Henri, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Bich Thuy and  Pham Quoc Long. 2014. Seasonal variation of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the Red River system (Vietnam). The first International conference of the Vietnam – Bulgaria Scientific cooperation. November 2014, Ha Long city.   page 391-398. (ISBN 978-604-913-304-6 ). Published by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology.
  5. Phung Thi Xuan Binh, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Vu Duy An. 2014. Assessment of suspended solids in the Hoa Binh and Son La reservoirs. National Electric conference of Science and Technology.  14th November 2014, Hanoi. page 200- 205. Published by the Vietnam Association of Electricity.
  6. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles, Tran Thi Bich Nga, Pham Quoc Long, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc and Phung Thi Xuan Binh. 2013. Impact of the Hoa Binh reservoir on water quality of the downstream Da river over the period 1960 – 2009. The Third International Science Conference on Sustainable Energy Development, Hanoi-Ninh Binh, 16 – 18 October 2013. page 219 -224, Publishing house for Science and Technology, ISBN 978-604-913-137-0.
 
Presentations in conferences/workshops:
In 2016
  1. Le Thi Phuong Quynh. Phung Thi Xuan Binh, Le Duc Nghia and Duong Thi Thuy. 2016. Impact of the reservoir on the POC fluxes of the downstream Da River over the perios 1960 -2014. International longterm ecological research. 5th VNU-HCM International Conference for 5th Environment and Natural Resources (ICENR 2016) and 11th International Longterm Ecological Research -Asia-Pacific Regional Network Regional Conference (2016 ILTER-EAP), 26-29 October 2016 Hochiminh city, Vietnam.
  2. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Lu XiXi, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong, Marchand Cyril, Pham Quoc Long, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong,  Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Bich Thuy,  Vu Duy An, Le Duc Nghia, Tran Bich Nga and Zhou Yue. 2016. Carbon fluxes and emission of the Red River system: impact of human activities and climate change. Some notes for the present research project. International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
  3. Lu Xi Xi, Ran Lishan, Yang XK and Liu Shaoda. 2016. Carbon outgassing from large Asian rivers: an overview International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
  4. Billen Gilles,  Garnier Josette and Théry Sylvain. 2016. The GRAFS / SENEQUE - RIVERSTRAHLER modelling suite: a tool for studying C, N & P transfers along the land sea continuum of large watersheds. International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». INPC – APN. Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
  5. Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Rochelle-Newall Emma, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette and Billen Gilles. 2016. Organic carbon in the Red River, Vietnam: measurement and modelling. International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». INPC – APN. Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
  6. Ho Tu Cuong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Marchand Cyril Vu Duy An, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen  Bich Thuy, Dang Quang Le, Duong Thi Thuy and Nguyen Trung Kien. 2016. Relationship of bio-physico-chemical variables on the calculated flux of CO2 in different seasons at five sites along the Red River system. 2016. International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». INPC – APN. Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
  7. Dao Viet Nga, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Emma Rochelle- Newall, Le Nhu Da, Le Duc Nghia and Nguyen Thi Mai Huong. 2016.  Longterm variation (1980 – 2014) of the riverine carbon flux of the Red River system (Vietnam). International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». INPC – APN. Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
  8. Tran Thi Bao Ngoc, Hoang Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Trung Kien, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Lu XiXi, Duong Thi Thuy. 2016. Seasonal variation of water quality and plankton community in the Red river system. 2016. International conference on «carbon emission and transfer from river system: impact of climate change and human activity ». INPC – APN.  Hanoi, 14th -17th November 2016.
     
In 2015
  1. Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Viet Nga Dao, Thi Anh Mai, Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen,  Thi Thuy Duong, Cuong Tu Ho, Thi Xuan Binh Phung and Thi Bich Nga Tran. 2015. Transport of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Red River system (Vietnam).  International Forum on Green Technology and Management (IFGTM) , 28-30 July, Hue city, 2015. (poster).
  2. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Phung Thi Xuan Binh, Pham Quoc Long, Tran Thi Bich Nga, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles. 2015. Impact of the Thac Ba reservoir on water quality of the downstream Lo-Gam_Chay river system over the period 1960 – 2009. The International Science Conference on Green Growth and Energy for ASEAN, Hanoi, 16 – 18 October 2015. (oral presentation).
 
In 2014
  1. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles, Ho Tu Cuong, Duong Thi Thuy, Tran Thi Bich Nga, Pham Quoc Long. 2014. Observation of carbon transfer in the Red river system (Vietnam and China). RPP SELTAR Workshop CHAMA. Vegetated coastal habitats in the southeastern Asia: threats from global changes and management of human impacts, Hanoi, Vietnam, 30-31st October 2014 (oral presentation).
  2. Ho Tu Cuong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Duong Thi Thuy, Cyril Marchand, Nguyen Bich Ngoc, Vu Duy An, Nguyen Trung Kien. Measurement of CO2 flux at the air-water interface of the Red River system.  International workshop on “Source and transfer of organic matters and associated contaminations in River Basins”. 15-17th December 2014, INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam (oral presentation).
  3. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Ho Tu Cuong; Duong Thi Thuy; Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc; Vu Duy An; Pham Quoc Long; Seidler, Christina. 2014. Water quality of the Red River system in the period 2012 – 2013. DAAD Alumni workshop “Sustainable management of Environment and Natural Resources in Vietnam”, Hanoi 4-6th November 2014 (oral presentation).
  4. Lu XiXi et al. 2014. Carbon outgassing from large Asian rivers: higher or lower? International workshop on “Source and transfer of organic matters and associated contaminations in River Basins”. 15-17th December 2014, INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam. (oral presentation).
  5. Lu XiXi, Chantha Oeurng, Le Thi Phuong Quynh and Duong Thi Thuy. 2014. Impacts of dams on downstream sediment budget: An example of the lower reach of Red River. The 6th International Larger Asian River Symposium, Biodiversity and Ecological Security at River Basin Scale. 9th–13th May, 2014 Xian, Shaanxi, China (oral). http://www.largeasianriver.com/6th_Programme.htm  (oral)
  6. Duong Thi Thuy, Hoang Thu Hang, Ho Tu Cuong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh. 2014. Periphytic diatom from several polluted rivers. RPP SELTAR Workshop CHAMA. Vegetated coastal habitats in the southeastern Asia: threats from global changes and management of human impacts, Hanoi, Vietnam, 30-31st October 2014. (oral presentation)
  7. Duong Thi Thuy, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Ho Tu Cuong and Lu XiXi. 2014. Phytoplankton of the Red river system and their response to environmental changes. The fourth International Conference for Environment and Natural Resource ICENR 2014 on “Green growth, climate change and protection of the coastal environment”, organized by Vietnam National University of HoChiMinh city (Vietnam) and Braunschweig University (Germany), 17 – 18 June 2014, in Hochiminh city, Vietnam. Abstract book, p148.
  8. Ho Tu Cuong a. 2014. Red River website: a forum for information exchange and researches relating to the Red River. International workshop on “Source and transfer of organic matters and associated contaminations in River Basins”. 15-17th December 2014, INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam. (oral presentation).
  9. Hoang Thi Thu Hang, Duong Thi Thuy, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Ho Tu Cuong. 2014. Pattern on seasonal variations of phytoplankton community and water quality in the Red River system. International workshop on “Source and transfer of organic matters and associated contaminations in River Basins”. 15-17th December 2014, INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam. (oral presentation).
  10. Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Vu Duy An, Duong Thi Thuy, Ho Tu Cuong and Tran Thi Bich Nga. 2014. Preliminary monitoring results on some heavy metal contents in the Red River system. The 12th Annual UNU & GIST Joint Programme Symposium “Issues on Environmental Multi-Pollutants”, October 27-29, 2014, Da Nang city, Vietnam. (Poster).
  11. Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Bich Thuy, Vu Duy An, Duong Thi Thuy and Le Thi Phuong Quynh. 2014. Preliminary monitoring results on total coliforms and fecal coliforms in the Red River system, section from Yen Bai to Hanoi. The fourth International Conference for Environment and Natural Resource ICENR 2014 on “Green growth, climate change and protection of the coastal environment”, organized by Vietnam National University of HoChiminh city (Vietnam) and Braunschweig University (Germany), 17 – 18 June 2014, in Hochiminh city, Vietnam, Abstract book, p 144.
  12. Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Emma Newall-Rochelle, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen. 2014. Distribution and die-off rates of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in the Red River system.  International workshop on “Source and transfer of organic matters and associated contaminations in River Basins”. 15-17th December 2014, INPC, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam (oral presentation).
  13. Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Josette Garnier, Emma Rochelle-Newall. 2014. Distribution and persistance of Faecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) in the Red River, Vietnam. Journées scientifiques 2014 iEES Paris. 30th September – 1st October 2014, Center INRA, Versailles, France (Poster).
 
In 2013
  1. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette and Billen Gilles. Modelling hydrology and water quality of the Red River system. Italia-Vietnam Seminar on Hydrology and Suspended solid transfer of the Red River, 29th January 2013, Institute of Water Resource Planning, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2013 (oral, invited speaker).
  2. Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Garnier Josette, Billen Gilles, Duong Thi Thuy. Introduction about the project ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh “Carbon fluxes and emission from the Red River system (Vietnam and China). French-Vietnam Seminar on , 7th January 2013, Nutrients and carbon transfer in agricultural watersheds. Soils and Fertilisers Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2013 (oral, invited speaker).
 
In 2012
  1. Billen Gilles and Garnier Josette. Modelling the fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic matter along the aquatic continuum of large river systems. International Workshop in the framework of the project ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh on Hydrology and carbon transfer of the World Rivers, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 17th- 19th  December 2012, Hanoi, Vietnam 2012. (oral presentation)
  2. Duong Thi Thuy, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Emma Newal-Rochell and Lu XiXi. Preliminary study on phytoplankton structure along the Red River and their response to environmental changes. International Workshop on sediment fluxes and carbon emission from large Asian rivers, 20 - 21st  September 2012, University of Singapore, Singapore, 2012 (oral presentation).
  3. Garnier Josette and Billen Gilles. Modelling the fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic matter along the aquatic continuum of large river systems. International Workshop in the framework of the project ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh on Hydrology and carbon transfer of the World Rivers, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 17th- 19th  December 2012, Hanoi, Vietnam 2012. (oral presentation)
  4. Le Thi Phuong Quynh Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Duong Thi Thuy and Lu XiXi. Hydrology and carbon transfer in the Red River system. International Workshop on Sediment fluxes and carbon emission from large Asian rivers, 20 - 21st September 2012, University of Singapore, Singapore, 2012. (oral presentation)
  5. Ho Tu Cuong, Thomas Pommier, Emma Rochelle_Newall and Thi Thuy Duong. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial diversity in the aquatic environment. International Workshop in the framework of the project ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh on Hydrology and carbon transfer of the World Rivers, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 17th- 19th  December 2012, Hanoi, Vietnam 2012. (oral presentation)
  6. Duong Thi Thuy, Le Thi Phuong Quynh, Ho Tu Cuong and Dinh Kim Dang. Toxic cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins in relation to environmental factors in freshwater in Vietnam. International Workshop in the framework of the project ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh on Hydrology and carbon transfer of the World Rivers, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 17th- 19th  December 2012, Hanoi, Vietnam 2012. (oral presentation)
  7. Lu XiXi. Introduction about the international project “Sediment fluxes and carbon emission from large Asian rivers”. International Workshop on Sediment fluxes and carbon emission from large Asian rivers, 20 - 21st September 2012, University of Singapore, Singapore, 2012. (oral presentation)
  8. Lu XiXi. Sediment fluxes and carbon emission from large Asian rivers: An example of the Yellow River. International Workshop in the framework of the project ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh on Hydrology and carbon transfer of the World Rivers, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 17th- 19th  December 2012, Hanoi, Vietnam 2012. (oral presentation)

IV. Training

A training course is organized during two days 16th - 17th November 2016 for about 30 Vietnamese, Chinese, and Singapore young scientists and students.
The first day of the training course provides for participants
+) a  review about the recent understandings of carbon emission from the world rivers: source, sinks, factors impacted
+)  how to calculate or to measure carbon emission from the river air-water interface?
The second day of the training course with the Seneque-Riverstrahlermodel  aims at synthetizing the work realized on the Red River upstream basin and the Day River on the right side of the delta. The several applications of the model concern the biogeochemical functioning of the drainage network in terms of sources and fate of (i) N, P, Si and their potential role for eutrophication and (ii) fecal contamination and organic carbon. The model was implemented in parallel to field and experimental studies for short period during the duration of 3 Ph-D thesis (2003-2004: Le TPQ, 2005; 2006-2008: Luu TNM. 2010; 2013-2014: Nguyen TMH, 2016). In addition, long term reconstruction, back the 1960’s, has been realized with the model on the basis of existing data (Le et al, 2014) and scenarios for the future explored. 
During this training the data gathered separately from these previous studies will be mobilized together. 
       
                         
                 

PhD students:

A sandwich thesis, under the training cooperation between the University of Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris, France) and the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST, Vietnam) (2013 –2015) is financially supported by the IRD French Institution. The thesis topic is the behavior of Coliforms in relationship with organic dissolved and particulate carbon fluxes, and aims to quantify the proportion of carbon issued from domestic waste water compared to the one issued from erosion and soils leaching in the Red River basin, including inorganic, organic and gazeous.
Cooperating with a NAFOSTED project, another PhD student has been working on the impact of human activities on phytoplankton community of the Red River system at the IET, VAST.
Master students:

The ARCP present project supports for two Master students from University of Science and Technology (USTH, Hanoi) who work on the topic of measurement of carbon exchange at the water-air interface of the Red River and carbon transfer in the whole Red River system.
Undergraduate students:

From 2012, about 16 undergraduate students from the Hanoi University of Natural Resources And Environment (HUNRE), Thanh Tay University, Thanh Do University and University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (USTH) realize their bachelor thesis at INPC and IET with scientific topics related to this ARCP project.

 
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