Main activities - work in the project
1. Water sampling campaigns and laboratory analysis (Dr. Duong TT; Dr. Ho TC; BSc Nguyen TBN; BSc Vu DA and MSc Nguyen TMH):
River water quality and carbon contents
Due to the lack of a complete water quality data base of the Red River basin, monthly field campaigns have been organized at ten gauging stations Yen Bai, Vu Quang, Hoa Binh, Son Tay, Hanoi, Gian Khau, Nam Dinh, Truc Phuong, Ba Lat, Quyet Chien gauging stations of the Red River system from August 2012 to December 2014.
Figure: Sampling sites for water quality of the Red River
Water samples are immediately filtered through 47-mm Whatman GF/F filters (0.7µm pore size) and stored at 40C when transporting back to the laboratory. Chlorophyll a, phytoplankton and periphytic diatoms, coliforms are determined at the IET laboratory. Major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) are measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method. Various carbon species (mainly DIC, DOC and POC) and nutrients (N, P and Si) are determined at the INPC laboratory by the APHA methods (APHA, 1995). CH4 and CO2 concentrations are measured by using a gas chromatograph (GC, Agilent) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) and with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD), respectively (Figure)
Figure : In situ measurement and laboratory analysis
Point and non-point sources
More than 100 agricultural and industrial wastewater samples in both dry and rainy season were taken and analyzed for the variables as presented above.
Some first results of the water quality of the Red River system and of channel irrigation in an agricultural region in Hanoi were analyzed for the Journal of Vietnamese Environment (Germany), Vietnam Journal of Biology and the Vietnam Agriculture and Rural development. These results are also used for modeling approach About 100 agricultural and industrial wastewater samples in both dry and rainy season have been taken and analyzed.
Figure Industrial and agricultural wastewater sampling.
2. Measurement of carbon exchange/emission (Dr. Cyril Marchand; Dr. Le TPQ; Dr. Ho TC; MSc Nguyen TK; BSc Nguyen TBN and BSc Vu DA):
A new participant, Dr Cyril Marchand from IRD, who is an expert in carbon cycling, contributed to measurements at five sites selected from the Red River upstream to downstream in wet and dry seasons in 2014, by different methods: calculation of CO2 fluxes either using a floating chamber connected to an IRGA, or determining pCO2 within the water column using an equilibrator (Figure 4). In both methods, the first results show that CO2 flux from the Red river network is characterized by significant spatial and seasonal variations. In the wet season (September 2014) the higher CO2 fluxes were observed than the dry season (November 2014). The final results of these measurements are synthesized for a peer-reviewed paper.
Figure : Measurement of carbon exchange at the water-air interface
3. Collection of available dataset from different sources (Prof Zhou Y., Dr Lu XX, Dr Le TPQ, Mrs Tran TBN, MSc Nguyen TMH):
The long-term discrete existing data (since the 1960s) of the Red River, including water quality, land use, population, agricultural and industrial development, hydrological management, and meteorological data have been collected from different sources, such as previous scientific research project, data published in the national books, reports or data from different official agencies …
+ To collect and synthesize the long-term discrete existent data (since the 1960s) of the water quality, industrial and agricultural wastewater, meteorology, hydrology, population and landuse of the whole Red River system in both China and Vietnam terrain;
+ To collect the data for prospective scenarios: climatic data (air temperature and rainfall); new reservoirs implementation, land use with intensive agricultural practices, industrial activities, population and urbanization increase of the basin in the 2050 horizon.
The data collection are used for
- modeling validation for describing the carbon transfer and carbon emission under the pressure of human activities and natural conditions in the Red River basin in the past, present and perspective scenarios
- calculating carbon emission and flux from the Red River.
4. Modeling application:
Assess the river water quality, to estimate C emission from the Red River; to characterize and identify the variables (geology, rainfall, reservoirs, land use, agriculture, population,…) controlling C fluxes and emission from this river (Dr. Duong TT; MSc Nguyen TMH; Dr. Le TPQ, Dr Lu XX; Dr Ho TC; Prof. Zhou Y).
In order to make use of the SENEQUE/RIVERSTRAHLER model for calculating faecal contamination at the scale of the whole Red River drainage network, data available in small rivers draining small watersheds with different land use were gathered and allowed to define the diffuse sources to surface water. Also, data on wastewater, with different levels of treatment, were used to characterize point sources. These constraints together with results from laboratory experiments (e.g. faecal bacterial mortality, proportion of attached vs. free bacteria, …) are used for the implementation of the model. The first results of the model show a reasonable agreement between the calculated and observed values at the monitored stations. The final results of these measurements and modelling approach is published for two peer-reviewed papers.
Figure: Organic matter input the SENEQUE/RIVERSTRAHLER Model
A similar approach is conducted in parallel to monitor and model dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) organic carbon. The application of the model provides also consistent results compared with the measurements at the monitored stations.
We continue to apply of the SENEQUE/RIVERSTRAHLER model for water quality of the Red River system focusing on the concept of autotrophy/heterotrophy as an indicator of CO2 budget in the Red River drainage network. In particular, the measurements of CO2 emissions in the different sectors of the river system might be compared with the budget of production and consumption of organic carbon as represented by the model. Such a dual approach of the ‘boundless carbon cycle’ in a large drainage network (modeling of in-stream carbon cycle related microbial activities and measurement of CO2 emission) would be a first achievement in this very timely field of research.
The simulation by the model of the current distribution of major forms of the carbon (form dissolved to particulate, from organic to inorganic) has been validated for the present situation, then, the past and prospective scenarios is explored.
The final results of these measurements and modelling approach is submitted for a peer-reviewed paper in Bioeochemistry Journal.
B. Workshop organization
1. The first year workshop
The first international workshop was successfully held at INPC, in Hanoi, Vietnam from 17th – 19th December, 2012. More than 40 multi-discipline scientists, including project scientists from four main research teams, invited scientists and observers from different countries such as France, Germany, Singapore, China, Japan and Vietnam, have attended the workshop.
Figure : The first International Workshop at INPC, VAST in December 2012, Hanoi, VIETNAM
To achieve the scientific goals and produce the expected outcomes of the project, the workshop firstly informed the attendances about the objectives, main activities and expected outputs of the project. Then, 23 presentations of the invited scientists related to the project topics were introduced. Finally, the workshop discussed the future cooperation and activities planned in the scope of the project, focusing on three main issues:
- Data collection and exchange, water sampling, analysis, and future cooperation with other projects such as the Cau River (Canada-Vietnamese project), the Dong Cao catchment (French-Vietnamese project); the water quality of North coastal areas in Vietnam (National Vietnam Project); suspended solids and carbon transport of the Large Asian Rivers project (PI: Dr Lu XiXi, from Singapore).
- Training course for modeling utilization and carbon emission calculation for Vietnamese, Chinese, and Singapore young scientists.
- Website construction: to be connected with other website, e.g. the Piren-Seine for the Seneque/Riverstrahler utilization or new research results from the Piren-Seine program.
As part of the workshop, a one-day field trip in the Red River system (from Hanoi to Hung Yen province) was organized for people involved in carrying out the project. A water sampling campaign was undertaken along the main axe of the Red River, about 40 km downstream from Hanoi.
Figure : One-day trip by boat in the Red River system (from Hanoi to Hung Yen province): field observation and water sampling campaigns.
In order to strengthen the international scientific exchange and cooperation, some participants of the project (Dr Lu XX, Dr Le TPQ and Dr Duong TT) were participated in the International workshop titled “Sediment Fluxes and Carbon Emission from Large Asian Rivers” which was organized by Dr Lu XX at the National University of Singapore on 20th - 21st September 2012.
2. The second year workshop
The second workshop was successfully held at INPC, in Hanoi, Vietnam from 15th – 17th December, 2014. More than 40 project scientists from four main research teams, invited scientists and observers from different countries such as France, Singapore, China, Japan and Vietnam, have attended the workshop. They all represented a large panel of disciplines, including chemistry, Biology, Biogeochemistry, agronomists, GIS- experts, etc…
To achieve the scientific goals and produce the expected outcomes of the project, the workshop firstly focused on the objectives, main activities and some results obtained in the present project. Then, 17 presentations, were introduced related to the ARCP project topics, and also to other projects carried out by the invited scientists and project participants. Finally, the workshop discussed the activities planned in the scope of the project and the future cooperation, focusing on three main issues:
- Data collection and exchange, water sampling, analysis, and future cooperation with other projects such as the upstream Red River water quality (funded by VAST-Vietnam); the EFESE for biodiversity of mangrove in the Red River estuary (funded by IRD); the NUCOWS for Nutrient cycles and Contaminants in Waters in Southeast Asia funded by USTH-Vietnam), the Dong Cao catchment (French-Vietnamese project); suspended solids and carbon transport of the Large Asian Rivers project (PI: Dr Lu XiXi, from Singapore)…. In addition, we discussed the data collection for the Chinese part, as more data concerning daily water discharge, suspended solids, statement of reservoir, population, land use for the recent period (2000 - 2014) needs to be collected.
- Training course for modeling utilization and carbon emission calculation for Vietnamese, Chinese, and Singapore young scientists. The training course may last during 2 days in October 2015, of which one day for measurement and calculation of carbon emission flux and one day for modeling utilization. About 12 participants could be funded for this training course.
- Website construction: to be connected with other websites, e.g. the one of PIREN-Seine for the SENEQUE/RIVERSTRAHLER utilization or new research results from the PIREN-Seine program, or APN website…. The Red River website will be opened as a forum for information exchange and researches relating to the Red River basin. The website will be set-up with the support of APN project and could open to the public some selected datasets (water quality, meteorology…) obtained during the researches as well as the model tools and/or model results for water management purposes for the interested researchers, including young scientists and students. Thanks to the website, researchers, concerned people and decision-maker can be brought together for the implementation of a complete data base of the whole Red River basin useful for water management.
Figure : The second International Workshop at INPC, VAST in December 2014, Hanoi, VIETNAM.
As part of the workshop, a one-day field trip in the Red River system (from Hanoi to Bac Ninh province) was organized for people involved in carrying out the project and for some invited scientists. A water sampling campaign was undertaken along the main axe of the Red River, about 40 km upstream of Hanoi and in the Duong River, a distributary of the Red River in the Delta area (Figure).
Thanks to the two international workshops funded by APN in the framework of the present research project, the project participants expressed their pleasure to meet and talk with other scientists in the related research topics in a constructive collaboration.
Figure : One-day trip by boat in the Red River system (from Hanoi city to Bac Ninh province, toward upstream of the Red River and in the Duong River): field observation and water sampling campaigns.
3. The third year workshop in November 2016
The third workshop is organized at Institute of Natural Products Chemistry (INPC), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 1H building, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi – VIETNAM on 14th and 17th November 2016.
More than 50 multi-discipline scientists, including project scientists from five main research teams, invited scientists and observers from different countries such as France, Singapore, China and Vietnam have attended the workshop.
During this workshop, a total of 19 presentations related to the ARCP project topics areperformed by the invited scientists and present project participants. Notably, some main significant research results of the present project are introduced by different project participants. At the end of the workshop, participants discuss the activities planned in the scope of the project (papers to submitted to peer-reviewed journals, final scientific report,...). The possibility for future cooperation on new project is also carried out.
As part of the workshop, a one-day field trip in the Red River delta is organized for people involved in carrying out the project and for some invited scientists. The Trang An Scenic Landscape Complex (Ninh Binh province, Vietnam) approved by UNESCO is the ideal place to understand about nature, the environment and climate of the Red River Delta region. This is a target for new scientific project development for protection of environment and ecosystem.
C. Website construction and upload
The need for the public forum to share the knowledge and scientific data concerning the Red River basin urged us to set up the website (www.redriverprogram.com). The website is set-up with the support of the present ARCP project and provides to the public some selected dataset (water quality, meteorology; … ) obtained during the researches as well as the model tools and/or the results for water management purposes for the interested researchers, young scientists as well as students. It is also the playgrounds and sharing rooms for the researchers who want to publicize their researches. The website includes several windows such as the background, information, objectives of the project, activities, images, publications relating to the projects, data portal for registered users, contact and links for the partners who joined and funded the projects. We also try to update all information relating to the Red River basin in terms of research and management. With the website, researchers, concerned people and decision-maker can be brought together for the animation of an interactive and visible tools on the whole Red River basin.
D. Training course
A sandwich thesis, under the training cooperation between the University of Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris, France) and the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST, Vietnam) (2013 –2015) is financially supported by the IRD French Institution. The thesis topic is the behavior of Coliforms in relationship with organic dissolved and particulate carbon fluxes, and aims to quantify the proportion of carbon issued from domestic waste water compared to the one issued from erosion and soils leaching in the Red River basin, including inorganic, organic and gazeous.
Cooperating with a NAFOSTED project, another PhD student has been working on the impact of human activities on phytoplankton community of the Red River system at the IET, VAST.
The ARCP present project supports for two Master students from University of Science and Technology (USTH, Hanoi) who work on the topic of measurement of carbon exchange at the water-air interface of the Red River and carbon transfer in the whole Red River system.
From 2012, about 15 undergraduate students from the Hanoi University of Natural Resources And Environment (HUNRE), Thanh Tay University, Thanh Do University and University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (USTH) realize their bachelor thesis at INPC and IET with scientific topics related to this ARCP project.
A training course is organized during two days 16th - 17th November 2016 for about 30 Vietnamese, Chinese, and Singapore young scientists and students.
The first day of the training course provides for participants
+) a review about the recent understandings of carbon emission from the world rivers: source, sinks, factors impacted
+) how to calculate or to measure carbon emission from the river air-water interface?
The second day of the training course with the Seneque-Riverstrahlermodel aims at synthetizing the work realized on the Red River upstream basin and the Day River on the right side of the delta. The several applications of the model concern the biogeochemical functioning of the drainage network in terms of sources and fate of (i) N, P, Si and their potential role for eutrophication and (ii) fecal contamination and organic carbon. The model was implemented in parallel to field and experimental studies for short period during the duration of 3 Ph-D thesis (2003-2004: Le TPQ, 2005; 2006-2008: Luu TNM. 2010; 2013-2014: Nguyen TMH, 2016). In addition, long term reconstruction, back the 1960’s, has been realized with the model on the basis of existing data (Le et al, 2014) and scenarios for the future explored.
During this training the data gathered separately from these previous studies will be mobilized together.
E. Other work
The different teams of this project participated to other international workshops, and different international projects focusing on the human activity and climate change impacts on river water quality and ecology (Please, see the list of presentations in the part Results).
In addition, the present ARCP project has a close cooperation with different international projects such as the NUCOWS (funded by USTH-Vietnam), the EFESE (funded by IRD, France), the Sea-Era project (EU programme, Emosem project), the NAFOSTED-Vietnam project which grouped together scientists from various institutions from Vietnam and France.
All these activities have definitely allowed enlarging the international networking and communications, beneficial to our ARCP project.