04.37916621
  • APN
  • INPC
  • DMHCC
  • IET
  • UPMC
  • NUS
  • Yunnan
  • IRD
Red River Basin - human activities and climate change

Introduction of the present project

1. General introduction
 
Carbon (C) fluxes and emission of the river are impacted by both natural and anthropogenic factors. To obtain a good understanding of the global natural and human impact to global C cycle, it has to be examined at a regional scale, where the various climatic and socio-economical constraints can be taken into account. However, there is limited understanding of recent spatial and temporal dynamics of the C exchange for the large Asian rivers. More importantly, there has been no systematic estimate of C emission from large Asian rivers.
The Red River (Vietnam and China) is a good example of a South-East Asian river system, strongly affected by climate and human activities. Our previous researches (IFS, AUF,… projects) investigated and simulated the water, sediment and nutrient fluxes of the whole Red River system (Le et al., 2007; 2009; 2010). The proposed project aims to quantify the spatial and temporal variability C fluxes and emission (outgassing or evasion) from the Red River system and evaluate their response to sediment loads change and other environmental changes such as land use, intensive agricultural practice, reservoir construction and population. This work is structured around the SENEQUE/RIVERSTRAHLER model for relating the C transfer at the scale of the whole drainage network and the receiving coastal marine areas to the constraints resulting from human activities and natural conditions in the watershed. In this work, the model is further validated to describe the C transfer in the whole Red River system for the past and present situations, and then is used to explore various scenarios of changes in climate and human activities at the 2050s horizon.
The project would imply:
1. to complete the database for long-term period from the 1960s to present (water and wastewater quality, meteorology, hydrology and human activities) which is utilized to calculate the C fluxes and emission, as well as utilized for the model validation in the past and at the present situations.
2. to calculate the C fluxes and emission from the Red River; to characterize and identify the variables (geology, rainfall, reservoirs, land use …) controlling C  fluxes and emission from this river;
3.  to apply the SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model which allows relating the water quality, including C  transfers in the drainage network to the constraints resulting from human activity and natural conditions in the Red River watershed. This allows us to predict the results of the overall water quality and C delivery of the river system for different possible future changes in five important aspects: (a) climate change;  b) the impoundment of new large dams; (c) population and urbanization increase; (d) the changes in land use and the intensification of agricultural practices and (e) change in wastewater treatment policy.
The outputs from the project include   i) to provide a database for long-term period (1960 – present) of the Red River watershed: industrial and agricultural wastewater quality; river water quality; meteorology, hydrology, reservoir impoundment, population, land use;     ii) to estimate the influence of the point and non-point sources on the C  transfer in the river system. Calculate the C fluxes of the Red River system to the sea, and C emission from the Red River to the air;      iii) to provide an operational tool for the improvement of the regional scale management of water resources, such as already existing in several European river basins, and to clearly point out the gaps existing in our understanding of the system, thus indicating the need for further research in the Red River basin. Our model is transferable to other rivers in Vietnam and other Asian countries, which is helpful for the sake of defining the conditions for a sustainable development;   iv) publication of international peer-reviewed papers, and national papers, attendance at international conferences and workshops.
Our project could fill in the gap in C fluxes and emission estimation in the literature, but also predict future its trajectory in a holistic way in a typical large Asian river, the Red River, which is strongly impacted by both natural and human factors. The Red River plays a vital role in providing water resources for the economically dynamic region (China and Vietnam). Such research fits to Chinese, Singapore and Vietnamese governmental initiatives on broad water and environment studies and enhances our capacities on C trading and climate mitigation research. 
 

2. Participating countries:
 
Proponent:  Institute of Natural Product Chemistry (INPC), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Ha Noi, VIETNAM ;  (Dr LE Thi Phuong Quynh, email: quynhltp@yahoo.com)
 
Collaborators
1- Institute of Environmental Technology (IET), VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Ha Noi, VIETNAM (Dr DUONG Thi Thuy, email: duongthuy0712@yahoo.com and  Dr HO Tu Cuong, email: hotucuong@gmail.com)
2- Department of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Vietnam Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Nguyen Chi Thanh str., Hanoi, VIETNAM (Mrs TRAN Thi Bich Nga,   email: bich_nga208@yahoo.com)
3- National University of Singapore (NUS), 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, SINGAPORE (Dr LU XiXi, email: geoluxx@nus.edu.sg)
4- Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, 237 Longquan Road, Kunming 650221, CHINA (Prof Zhou Yue,  email: zhouyue00000@163.com)
5 - University of Pierre and Marie Curie, UMR Metis (ex Sisyphe) 7619, 4th floor, Tour 56, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris 75005, FRANCE (Dr BILLEN Gilles, email: gilles.billen@upmc.fr, Dr GARNIER Josette, email: josette.garnier@upmc.fr)        
6 – Institute of research for development (IRD), France (Dr. MARCHAND Cyril, IRD, France, cyril.marchand@ird.fr)
 
3. Objectives

The present project aims to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon fluxes and emission (outgassing or evasion) from the Red River system and to evaluate their responses to changes in sediment loads and other environmental changes such as land use, intensive agricultural practice, reservoir construction and population.  The project would imply:
1. to complete the database for long-term period from the 1960s to present (water and wastewater quality, meteorology, hydrology and human activities) which is utilized for calculating the carbon fluxes and emission, as well as for the model validation in the past and at the present situations.
2. to calculate the carbon fluxes and emission from the Red River; to characterize and identify the variables (geology, rainfall, reservoirs, land use …) controlling carbon  fluxes and emission from this river;
3. to apply the SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model which allows to relate the water quality, including carbon  transfers in the drainage network, to the constraints resulting from human activity and natural conditions in the Red River watershed. This allows us to predict the results of the overall water quality and carbon delivery of the river system for different possible future changes in five important aspects: (a) climate change;     b) the impoundment of new large dams;     (c) population and urbanization increase;    (d) the changes in land use and the intensification of agricultural practices and       (e) change in wastewater treatment policy.
4. to enhance the international scientific cooperation (between Vietnam, China, Singapore and France) and  training young scientists.
 

4. Funding source

The present project, with the Project Reference Numbers for:
- the first year project:         ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh
- the second year project:    ARCP2013-06CMY-Quynh
- the third year project:        ARCP2014-03CMY-Quynh
is funded by the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN) and the National Science Foundation (NSF)
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